Archive-name: Solaris2/FAQ
Version: $Revision: 1.57 $
Last-Modified: $Date: 1996/06/26 13:16:41 $
Maintained-by: Casper Dik <Casper.Dik@Holland.Sun.COM>

The following is a list of questions that are frequently asked about Solaris 2.x. You can help make it an even better-quality FAQ by writing a short contribution or update and sending it BY EMAIL ONLY to me. Thanks!

As you may have noted, I have switched employers and work for Sun as of April 1st 1995. Sun is in no way responsible for the contents of this FAQ.

The latest Solaris 2 FAQ, including an HTML version, and some other goodies can be obtained through ftp from <ftp://ftp.fwi.uva.nl/pub/solaris>.

A new version of the FAQ is available with an index separate from all questions, it's <http://www.fwi.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2/>. So it's a lot quicker to download. Also, an experimental FAQ search service at <http://www.fwi.uva.nl/cgi-bin/sfaq.cgi> is now available.

The HTML <http://www.fwi.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2.html> version of the FAQ contains references to most FTP sites and files mentioned in the FAQ. The references to ftp sites are always to either HTML files or directories, never to binary files.

I've added an index of questions and marked changed(*) and added questions(+). The FAQ is being reorganized, time permitting. The index is generated automatically, so there may be errors there. Not all questions are in the section they belong in. Suggestions on how best to subdivide/order the FAQ are welcome.

1. GENERAL

  • 1.1) What's Solaris anyway?
  • 1.2) Why should I upgrade?
  • 1.3) Should I move to Solaris 2.x now, or later, or never?
  • 1.4) What is Solaris 2? Is it really SVR4 based?
  • 1.5) What machines does Solaris 2.x run on?
  • 1.6) Will my old applications from 4.1.x run on Solaris 2?
  • 1.7) Will my SPARC binaries run unchanged on UltraSPARC machines?
  • 1.8) Will my old applications from SVR3 on the 386 run on Solaris 2/x86?
  • 1.9) Where has the XXX command gone now?
  • 1.10) When I upgrade, should I use SunInstall "upgrade", or start over?
  • 1.11) Is Solaris 2.x reliable/stable enough to use?
  • 1.12) Why do some people dislike Solaris2?
  • 1.13) Why do some people like Solaris2?
  • 1.14) What is Sun doing to help me migrate?
  • 1.15) Can I use my SunOS 4 disks on Solaris 2.x?
  • 1.16) How can I enable System V IPC? Ipcs says it isn't configured in.

    2. MORE INFO

  • 2.1) How can I RTFM when I don't have it anymore?
  • 2.2) Why is "man -k" so confused?
  • 2.3) What Software is available for Solaris 2.x?
  • 2.4) What FTP/WWW sites do I need to know about?
  • 2.5) What other FAQ's do I need to know about?
  • 2.6) What mailing lists should I get?
  • 2.7) What books should I read?
  • 2.8) What hardware is supported by Solaris 2.x for Intel?
  • 2.9) What is Wabi?
  • 2.10) I'm running into some limits of SunOS 4.x, will upgrading to Solaris 2.x help?

    3. SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION

  • 3.1) How much disk space do I need to install Solaris 2?
  • 3.2) How can I convert all my local changes that I've made over the years into their corresponding forms on Solaris 2?
  • 3.3) What are "packages"?
  • 3.4) Why can't I write in/mount over /home?
  • 3.5) Why can't I access CDs or floppies?
  • 3.6) Why are there no passwords in /etc/passwd?
  • 3.7) Why can't I rlogin/telnet in as root?
  • 3.8) How can I have a user without a password?
  • 3.9) How can I set up anonymous FTP?
  • 3.10) How can I print from a Solaris 2 (or any System V Release 4) system to a SunOS4.x (or any other BSD) system?
  • 3.11) Why does lp complain about invalid content types?
  • 3.12) My jobs stay in the queue after printing.
  • 3.13) Are there any alternatives to the system V spooler?
  • 3.14) What happened to /dev/MAKEDEV? How do I add devices?
  • 3.15) Why isn't my tape/cd player or new disk/device recognized?
  • 3.16) What happened to /etc/rc and /etc/rc.local?
  • 3.17) Can't I have /etc/rc.local back?
  • 3.18) Why are there two versions of shutdown?
  • 3.19) When will somebody publish a package of the BSD (4.3BSD Net2) "init", "getty", and "rc/rc.local", so we can go back to life in the good old days?
  • 3.20) What has happened to getty? What is pmadm and how do you use it?
  • 3.21) How do I get the screen to blank when nobody's using it?
  • 3.22) And what about screendump, screenload and clear_colormap?
  • 3.23) Where did etherfind go?
  • 3.24) Can I run SunOS4.1.x on my SPARC Classic, LX, SS5, SS4, SS20, Voyager, SS1000, SC2000, CS6400, Ultra?
  • 3.25) The "find" program complains that my root directory doesn't exist?
  • 3.26) I'm having troubles with high-speed input on the Sparc serial ports. What should I do?
  • 3.27) How do I make ksh or csh be the login shell for root?
  • 3.28) What is this message: "automount: No network locking on host, contact administrator to install server change."?
  • 3.29) I have all kinds of problems with SCSI disks under Solaris 2.x They worked fine under SunOS 4.x.
  • 3.30) How do I make Solaris2 use my old ADAPTEC ACB-4000 and Emulex MD-21 diskcontrollers?
  • 3.31) Should I wait installing 2.5 until there are enough patches?
  • 3.32) Why are there so many patches for Solaris 2.x?
  • 3.33) What are the ``mandatory'' patches I keep hearing about?
  • 3.34) Which patches should I apply?
  • 3.35) Where do I get patches from?
  • 3.36) Where can I obtain Solaris 2/x86 driver updates?
  • 3.37) Why does installing patches take so much space in /var/sadm?
  • 3.38) Do I need to back out previous versions of a patch?
  • 3.39) How can I have more than 48 pseudo-ttys?
  • 3.40) How can I have normal users chown their files?
  • 3.41) How can I get ps to print %MEM and %CPU?
  • 3.42) How can I get the DOS and Unix clock to agree on Solaris/x86?
  • 3.43) How can I increase the number of file descriptors per process?
  • 3.44) Can I install both SunOS and Solaris on the same machine, and choose between them at boot time?
  • 3.45) How do I disable banner pages under Solaris?
  • 3.46) How do I change my hostname?
  • 3.47) Can I run multiple terminals on the console of Solaris x86 like those supported on Interactive Unix and SCO?
  • 3.48) How can I prevent daemons from creating mode 666 files?
  • 3.49) How do I change the terminal type for /dev/console?
  • 3.50) If I login over the network, my terminal type is set to "sun"/"AT386" How can I change that? In SunOS 4.x the type would have been "network"
  • 3.51) How can I change the SYSV IPC parameters?

    4. NETWORKING

  • 4.1) How do I use DNS w/o using NIS or NIS+?
  • 4.2) Speaking of nsswitch.conf, what is it?
  • 4.3) What does [NOTFOUND=return] in nsswitch.conf mean?
  • 4.4) Can I run a nis/yp server under Solaris 2.x?
  • 4.5) Can I run NIS+ under Solaris 1 (SunOS 4.1.x)
  • 4.6) With NIS+ how do I find out which machine a client is bound to?
  • 4.7) Ypcat doesn't work on the netgroup table on a NIS+ server, why?
  • 4.8) Why is rpc.nisd such a memory pig according to ps?
  • 4.9) How do I tell my NIS+ server to service DNS requests from 4.x clients?
  • 4.10) How can I have multiple addresses per interface?
  • 4.11) Solaris 2.x supports filesystem sizes up to 1TB. Will this give interoperability problems with NFS?

    5. TROUBLE SHOOTING

  • 5.1) The Solaris 2.x application XX fails with a mysterious error condition.
  • 5.2) In Solaris 2.5 nm is slow or dumps core.
  • 5.3) Why can't I run Answerbook on a standalone machine?
  • 5.4) Why can't I display Answerbook remotely?
  • 5.5) Why can't I run filemgr, I get ``mknod: permission denied''?
  • 5.6) Why do I get isinf undefined when linking with libdps on Solaris 2.3?
  • 5.7) I can't get PPP to work between Solaris 2.3 and other platforms.
  • 5.8) Using compat mode for passwd doesn't work in 2.3?
  • 5.9) Why do I get __builtin_va_alist or __builtin_va_arg_incr undefined?
  • 5.10) My machine hangs during the boot process. It seems related to ps.
  • 5.11) Syslogd doesn't seem to log anything.
  • 5.12) I get ``Invalid client credential'' when mounting filesystem on Solaris client from non-Sun fileserver.
  • 5.13) After upgrade to 2.4, ls on NFS mounted directories hangs.
  • 5.14) After installing patch 101945-xx, I have NFS problems (ksh looping)
  • 5.15) I messed up /etc/system, now I can't boot.
  • 5.16) The /etc/path_to_inst file is corrupted, I can't boot.
  • 5.17) TCP/IP connections time out too soon, especially on slow links.
  • 5.18) Sendmail connection to non-Unix hosts don't work.
  • 5.19) Solaris 2.x can't set up any TCP/IP connections to certain hosts.
  • 5.20) I read 5.19, but I still have connectivity problems.
  • 5.21) When reading mail on non-Solaris clients of a Solaris mail server, or with non-Solaris mail readers, some messages get split into multiple messages.
  • 5.22) Mailx/Mail often send reply to wrong user or show wrong sender.
  • 5.23) One of my users can't login (one some machines).
  • 5.24) My clients with remote /var (/var/adm) partitions won't boot.
  • 5.25) Vacation doesn't work reliably in a mixed Solaris/SunOS environment.
  • 5.26) I have a lot of <defunct> processes. How do I get rid of them?
  • 5.27) I get /dev/ptmx: No such device when logging in.
  • 5.28) ld bails out with msync errors.
  • 5.29) su responds with "Sorry" and doesn't prompt for a password.
  • 5.30) Why can't I install 2.4 from a non-Sun CD while I could do so with 2.3?
  • 5.31) ifconfig can't find my network interface
  • 5.32) I have an application that compiled fine, but when I run it I get: fatal: libfoo.so.2: can't open file: errno=2
  • 5.33) Motif programs dump core almost immediately.
  • 5.34) cc complains that "language optional software package not installed"
  • 5.35) thr_create and other thread functions always return -1
  • 5.36) Solaris 2.4 is getting slower over time/seems to have a kernel memory leak.
  • 5.37) Why do I get ``Unable to install/attach driver 'xxx''' messages?
  • 5.38) I can't run nfs: netdir_getbyname failure, /dev/udp: bind problem
  • 5.39) Why do I get ``named[]: rt_malloc: memdebug overflow'' errors?
  • 5.40) Ld dumps core on Solaris/x86
  • 5.41) In Solaris 2.4 my TCP performance is extremely poor.
  • 5.42) Solaris 2.4 in.tftpd is terribly slow.
  • 5.43) I get "df: Could not find mount point ..."
  • 5.44) I changed root's shell, now I can't login.
  • 5.45) When linking C++ programs, I get "_ex_keylock" undefined.
  • 5.46) My NFS server hangs when I get filesystem full/over quota errors.
  • 5.47) Openwindows fails with "Binding Unix Socket: Invalid argument"
  • 5.48) Why is Xsun such a memory pig, especially on the SX, S24 and FFB?
  • 5.49) Solaris 2.5 and Solaris 2.4 patch 101945-34+ have poor TCP performance over slow links.
  • 5.50) After install x86 patch 101946-29, I have problems with sockets and TCP/IP throughput.
  • 5.51) Du and ls show funny block counts on NFSv3 mounted filesystems.
  • 5.52) When I halt/reboot my system I get "INIT: failed write of utmpx entry"

    6. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

  • 6.1) Where is the C compiler or where can I get one?
  • 6.2) What about the linker, the assembler and make?
  • 6.3) Where has ranlib gone?
  • 6.4) What do I need to compile X11R5?
  • 6.5) I can't compile X11R6 on Solaris 2.4
  • 6.6) X11R6 on Solaris 2.4 won't run. Xinit dies with "User Signal 1". Xterms won't die. Dired doesn't work in emacs-19.
  • 6.7) I get undefined symbols when compiling R6 in Solaris 2.2.
  • 6.8) After compiling X11R6 with gcc 2.7.0, X programs won't find their libraries.
  • 6.9) How can I run X11R6 on my SS4 w/ TCX?
  • 6.10) Can I run X11R6 on my SX, ZX, TCX or FFB?
  • 6.11) I can't get perl 4.036 to compile or run.
  • 6.12) I can't get sockets to work with perl.
  • 6.13) I have problems compiling MH 6.8.3
  • 6.14) I can't get XV 3.x to compile or run correctly.
  • 6.15) What happened to NIT? What new mechanisms exist for low-level network access?
  • 6.16) Where are all the functions gone that used to be in libc?
  • 6.17) I'm still missing some functions: bcopy, bzero and friends.
  • 6.18) Can I use the source compatibility package to postpone porting?
  • 6.19) Why doesn't readdir work? It chops the first two characters of all filenames.
  • 6.20) Why do I get undefined symbols when linking with curses/termcap?
  • 6.21) Where are the Motif includes and libraries?
  • 6.22) When I call semctl(), my program crashes. It works fine elsewhere.
  • 6.23) Traceroute to Solaris 2.x machines gives many timeouts.
  • 6.24) I have problems linking my application statically.
  • 6.25) I get '"/usr/platform/SUNW,Ultra-1/lib/libc_psr.so.1": not in executable format: format not recognized' from gdb on my Ultra gdb needs to be updated to understand the "V8+" executable format.

    7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  • 1. GENERAL

    1.1) What's Solaris anyway?

    Solaris(tm) is Sun's name for their UNIX-based user environment, including the UNIX(tm) operating system, window system (X11-based), and other stuff too.

    Solaris 1.x is a retroactive (marketing?) name for SunOS4.1.x (x>=1), a version of UNIX that is BSD-like with some SVR4 features, along with OpenWindows 3.0. Solaris 2.x (which is what most everybody means by "Solaris") includes SunOS5.x, which is an SVR4-derived UNIX, along with OpenWindows 3.x, tooltalk, and other stuff. (See 1.5 for a chart with more info)

    1.2) Why should I upgrade?

    Solaris 2 is more compatible with the rest of the UNIX industry. Other major UNIX vendors including IBM, HP, SGI, SCO, and others are based on System V rather than on BSD (though some of them are on SVR3, not SVR4). All but one commercial PC-based UNIXes are System V based (and mostly SVR4); the only commercial exception is from a small but interesting firm called BSDI.

    Solaris 2 is where Sun has been putting almost all its development for the last few years now. There will be no new development on SunOS4; already much of Sun's add-on software is only available for Solaris 2. Solaris 2 is the only supported MP OS on all but the old 4/6x0-1x0 w/ Ross 605 modules.

    Most Sun software is being released first for Solaris 2.x.

    Solaris 2.3 features a standard X11R5 release of The X Window System, a benefit for those who didn't like NeWS or the V2/V3 OpenWindows server. (It's still called OpenWindows, but it is the X11R5 server with Adobe DPS added in). It is as fast or faster than MIT R5 (depending on the platform) and supports all Sun graphics hardware.

    Solaris 2 is more standards-compliant than Solaris 1/SunOS 4.

    1.3) Should I move to Solaris 2.x now, or later, or never?

    That depends - on you, your situation, your application mix, etc. Some year SunOS4.1.x will go the way of the 3/50 - it'll still be around, but Sun will no longer support it.

    You don't have to upgrade immediately, but you should be planning your upgrade path by now.

    1.4) What is Solaris 2? Is it really SVR4 based?

    Solaris 2 is an "operating environment" that includes the SunOS 5.x operating system and the OpenWindows 3.x window environment.

    SunOS 5.x are based on USL's SVR4.0. SVR4.0, in turn, was developed jointly by AT&T and Sun while Sun was developing 4.1.0, which is why things like RFS, STREAMS, shared memory, etc., are in SunOS 4.1.x, and why things like vnodes, NFS and XView are in SVR4.0. (RFS, by the way, is being dropped effective with Solaris 2.3).

    1.5) What machines does Solaris 2.x run on?

    Solaris 2.0 only ran on desktop SPARCstations and a few other Sun machines.

    Solaris 2.1 and 2.4 and later come in two flavors, SPARC and "x86".

    Solaris 2.1 (and 2.2, ...) for SPARC run on all SPARCstations and clones, as well as all models of the Sun-4 family. The old FPU on the 4/110 and 4/2x0 is not supported, so floating point will be SLOW, but it does work.

    Starting with 2.5 support for machines with kernel architecture "sun4" is dropped. This includes the sun4/[1234]xx, but not the sun4/6xx, which is still supported as of this writing.

    All version of the SPARC PROMs should work under Solaris 2.x, but you can run into the following problems:

    1) No part of the boot partition may be offset more than 1 GB into the disk, unless you have a PROM with rev 2.6 or better. Note that the number behind the point is not a fraction, it's an integer. Hence 3.0 > 2.25 > 2.10 > 2.9 > 2.1 > 2.0 > 1.6.
    2) If booting diskless, you need a link in the /tftpboot directory, "tftpboot -> .". Admintool will make that link automatically.

    A Solaris port for the PowerPC has been completed.

    Solaris 2.1 and 2.4 for x86 have been released to end users. It runs on a wide range of high-end PC-architecture machines. "High-end" means: 16MB of RAM and an 80486 (or 33MHz or faster 80386DX). It will not run on your 4 MB 16MHz 386SX, so don't bother trying! Also, floating point hardware (80387-style) is absolutely required in 2.1. Starting with Solaris 2.4 for x86, a fp CO-processor is no-longer required, though still recommended. All three buses are supported: ISA, EISA, MCA. Some PCI devices are supported, though full bus nexus support for PCI is not there. See also 3.36.

    To summarize all this, Jim Prescott gave this chart, which I've updated:

    Solaris SunOS     OpenWin               Comments
    1.0     4.1.1B    2.0
            4.1.1_U1  2.0           sun3 EOL release (not named Solaris)
    1.0.1   4.1.2     2.0           6[379]0-1[24]0 MP
    1.1     4.1.3     3.0           SP Viking support
    1.1C    4.1.3C    3.0           Classic/LX
    1.1.1   4.1.3_U1  3.0_U1        4.1.3 + fixes + Classic/LX support
    1.1.1 B 4.1.3_U1B 3.0_U1        1.1.1B + SS5/SS20 support
    1.1.2   4.1.4     3_414         The "final" 4.x release (SS20 HS11)
    

    2.0 5.0 3.0.1 sun4c only 2.1SPARC 5.1 3.1 Dec '92 2.1 x86 5.1 3.1 May '93 2.2SPARC 5.2 3.2 May '93 2.3SPARC 5.3 3.3 Nov '93 OpenWin 3.3 is X11R5 based: Display PostScript instead of NeWS, no SunView. It is still primarily OPEN LOOK. The Spring 1995 OpenWin will be Motif and COSE-based. Statically linked BCP support 2.3 edition II SPARC Special Solaris 2.3 distribution for Voyager and SparcStation 5 2.3 hardware 5/94 SPARC ?? 2.3 hardware 8/94 SPARC Supports S24 (24 bits color for SS5), POSIX 1003.2, Energy Start power management and SunFastEthernet + patches. 2.4 5.4 3.4 From this moment on, the SPARC and x86 releases are in sync. Q3 '94 Adds motif runtime and headers (not mwm). 2.4 hardware 11/94 First SMCC release of 2.4 2.4 hardware 3/95 Second SMCC release of 2.4 (includes support for booting from SSA) 2.5 5.5 3.5 UltraSPARC support, PCI support. NFS V3, NFS/TCP, ACLs, CDE, Sendmail V8 name service cache, dynamic PPP Posix threads, doors (new IPC mechanism) many "BSD" type functions back in libc, many "BSD" programs back in /usr/bin. mixed mode BCP support (e.g., apps only dynamically linked against libdl.so) 2.5 hardware 1/96 Creator3D support (Creator3D/FFB+ is not supported in 2.5 11/95, though the files are present but of unsupported, "mostly works", beta quality) 2.5.1 Ultra-2 support, Ultra-Enterprise server support. Large (32bit UID) support. 64bit KAIO (aioread64/aiowrite64), 3.75 GB of virtual memory. Pentium/Pentium Pro optimizations. (upto 25% for certain database apps) Ultra ZX support. Initial PowerPC desktop release.

    1.6) Will my old applications from 4.1.x run on Solaris 2?

    There is quite a bit of support in SunOS 5.x for running 4.1.x binaries in an emulation mode called "Binary Compatibility" (BCP). This works by dynamically linking the 4.1.x binaries with a shared library that emulates the 4.1.x binary interface on top of 5.x, so there is some overhead.

    In Solaris 2.2 and earlier, the programs needed to be fully dynamically linked.

    In Solaris 2.3 and 2.4 fully statically linked programs are supported as well. However, they won't obey nsswitch.conf. but use the standard "use NIS if present, fall back to files" approach of SunOS 4.x. Those programs may therefor require a "passwd: compat" line and will only talk to NIS (or NIS+ in emulation mode) or read from files.

    Starting Solaris 2.5 mixed mode (partly static/partly dynamic) executables are supported. Whether those programs can use /etc/nsswitch.conf depends on precisely how much was dynamically linked.

    Be aware, though, that Sun WILL drop the binary compatibility package some year. Try to wean yourself and your users from depending on it, even if it means beating on your software vendors to offer "native" Solaris2 applications. But this will happen later, rather than sooner.

    1.7) Will my SPARC binaries run unchanged on UltraSPARC machines?

    Yes. One of the most important goals of the UltraSPARC project was full binary compatibility with existing SPARC hardware and software.

    If it isn't compatible, it's a bug!

    There are some things you should keep in mind though: if you broke the rules but got away with it in the previous generations of SPARC machines, your luck may just have run out.

    When developing UltraSPARC it was discovered that some code generators didn't leave all "reserved" bits in opcodes zero. Such instructions are either illegal instructions which are trapped and fixed in the UltraSPARC kernel or they are legal V9 instructions which will modify the program behaviour. All such programs can be run through "cleanV8", a program designed to correct the bogus instructions.

    No instructions of the second category have been found, so even without "cleanV8" you should be safe.

    Another thing is the memory map on UltraSPARC, some applications use an mmap(MAP_FIXED) call that is illegal on UltraSPARC. Such calls are inherently non-portable. Such applications are relatively rare. One such applications is MAE, which should work again after "setenv MAE_NOMMAP_ENGINE",

    A third problem discovered is in device drivers that copy data from/to userland directly bypassing copyin(9f)/copyout(9f). On V8 SPARCs such device drivers would work most of the time, but fail mysteriously with panics when the system is stressed and page mappings disappear, but on the UltraSPARC the drivers will fail always. The kernel will panic and will tell you in which module the panic occurred.

    1.8) Will my old applications from SVR3 on the 386 run on Solaris 2/x86?

    As with SPARC, there is an emulation mode that should run the majority of well-behaved SVR3 and Xenix binaries. Most SVR3 stuff appears to work under Solaris 2.4.

    Applications from any other vendor's standards-conforming 386/486 SVR4 should also run.

    However, some vendors have made incompatible changes to their SVR4 release and programs linked on those versions may not work. Future versions of Solaris 2.x for Intel will address some/most of those incompatibilities. Unixware is one of the offenders.

    1.9) Where has the XXX command gone now?

    There are too many of these changes to include in this FAQ, but here are some key ones:

    a. locations are often different

    Note that the last two commands are back in /usr/bin in Solaris 2.5.

    b. some old commands don't exist or have replacements

    This information can be found in the Solaris 2.x Transition Guide - Appendix A (commands), Appendix B (system calls), Appendix C (files).

    This guide has undergone some changes from 2.0 -> 2.1 and beyond. Several manuals have ended up being combined into this single manual. This manual discusses administrative transition and developer transition issues.

    The command "whatnow" (for Solaris 2.x) is included in the "Admigration Toolkit" package (see below). The Admigration toolkit can be obtained from:

    opcom.sun.ca:/pub/migration_tools/SUNWmigr.tar.Z
    Admigration toolkit HTML documentation/code

    Sample output:

    	% whatnow hostname
    	hostname                                        4.x command only
    	hostname        /usr/ucb/hostname               part of SCP package
    	hostname        /usr/bin/uname -n               alternate command
    

    The whatnow command is limited in that it may point to one command which may only implement a subset of the old command (e.g., pstat points to sar, while pstat -s is identical to swap -s)

    1.10) When I upgrade, should I use SunInstall "upgrade", or start over?

    You can't do a SunInstall "upgrade" from 4.1.x to Solaris2. You can use the Admigration toolkit (q.v.) to help you move from SunOS 4.1.x (Solaris 1, actually) to Solaris 2.

    If you're moving from Solaris 2.1 to 2.2, or 2.2 to 2.3, ..., then you can use "upgrade" to preserve your existing partitions and local changes (including pkgadd!!), though it runs very slowly (about 1.5-2x the time for a reinstall) and does require that you have enough free space in / and /usr - make these big when you first install! If you run out of space in one of your partitions, you can always remove some components. Those will not be upgraded and can be installed elsewhere after initial upgrade (e.g., you can remove OW, Xil, Dxlib, manual pages, etc)

    There is no need to backout patches before upgrading. In 2.2, the system would back them out for you, in 2.3 it won't back out the patches but removes them without a trace.

    The upgrade doesn't work as well as a full install. E.g., the upgrade from 2.x (x<3) to 2.3 will leave aliases for all your ptys in /devices/pseudo.

    1.11) Is Solaris 2.x reliable/stable enough to use?

    The consensus seems to be that yes, it is, for many applications and most users. Your mileage may vary.

    Binary compatibility was much improved in 2.3. That will help transition somewhat. The performance of 2.3 is adequate, though some parts of the system are still slower than SunOS 4.1.x. Solaris 2.3 is much more stable on MP machines than 2.2. The Solaris 2.3 version of OpenWindows is much faster and much more stable than the versions shipped with SunOS 4.1.x.

    Solaris 2.1 and earlier should really be avoided. Solaris 2.2 should be avoided too, but some people need to stick to it until some applications get ported (2.2 is the last release with NeWS)

    Solaris 2.3 still has some problems on high-end MP systems with large numbers of interactive users. Solaris 2.4 and Solaris 2.5 have delivered increasingly more stable and more scalable multi processing.

    1.12) Why do some people dislike Solaris2?

    There is a number of reasons why people dislike Solaris.

    1) Change. In general people dislike change. Change requires re-learning and retraining. Old system administration practices no longer work. Commands have been replaced by other commands, some commands behave differently. And they ask why the change was necessary. SunOS 4.x worked for them.

    2) Lack of migration support. Sun did not provide a lot of tools to ease migration. Many applications wouldn't run in the binary compatibility mode. The source compatibility mode was probably compatible with some OS, but it certainly wasn't SunOS. Lot of public domain and third party stuff needed wasn't immediately available for Solaris. NIS+, buggy, resource hungry and instable replaced NIS in incompatible ways.

    3) Missing functionality. When people migrate, they at first don't tend to notice new functionality. Instead, they stumble upon missing functionality such as screenblank, clear_colormap and the like (but see 3.21). And perhaps worst of all, no C compiler, not even a crippled one.

    4) Slow and buggy. The initial Solaris releases didn't perform at all well and were extremely instable. This is improving rapidly, but SuperSPARC MP machines need a heavily patched 2.3 to work reliably.

    1.13) Why do some people like Solaris2?

    There are improvements in Solaris 2.x.

    1) OpenWindows 3.3 (in Solaris 2.3). Includes X11R5 and Display PostScript.

    2) Motif & CDE

    3) ANSI-C and POSIX development environment.

    4) POSIX threads (2.5)

    5) POSIX and X/OPEN command environment

    6) Multi-threaded kernel and real threads.

    7) True multi-processing.

    8) Goodies: vold, admintool and Wabi.

    9) Easy patch installation/administration through installpatch.

    10) all software in easy to manage "packages"

    11) Power management software

    12) Access control lists

    13) NFS Versions 3 and NFS over TCP (Solaris 2.5+)

    14) A better automounter, autofs (not more /tmp_mnt and symlinks)

    15) Jumpstart/autoinstall

    16) Better MP support.

    17) Faster networking (ATM, fastethernet)

    1.14) What is Sun doing to help me migrate?

    Sun has recently started several projects to aid in the transition. Their WWW starting point is:

    Solaris Migration Initiative home page

    The project is a combination of new and existing efforts and includes:

    1) Porting PD software to Solaris 2.x
    2) Solaris Migration Tool: (formerly known as Pipeline tool) a tool to help you port your code.
    3) Admigration Toolset. Tools to help you convert your SunOS 4 environment and to help you adjust to the new Solaris 2.x environment.
    4) Appmap: a tool to simplify application administration in a mixed SunOS 4.x/Solaris 2.x environment
    5) Solaris Transition CD
    6) Native Solaris NIS
    7) LP tools (simplified LP administration through NIS)

    1.15) Can I use my SunOS 4 disks on Solaris 2.x?

    Yes you can. The on disk format in Solaris 2.x isn't different from SunOS 4.1.x, as long as they've been formatted under SunOS 4.1.x. Disks formatted on older fses need to be converted with "fsck -c". If "dumpfs | head" (SunOS 4) or "fstyp -v | head" (Solaris 2) lists "format dynamic" as one of the first line, the disk does not need to be converted.

    UIDs > 60002 may give problems when moving disks from SunOS 4.x to Solaris 2.x. This will be fixed in a Solaris 2.5.1 which has MAXUID defined as 2147483648.

    Moving disks the other way around may give problems: Solaris 2.5 supports on disks ACLs, and when MAXUID in 2.5.1 is increased beyond 65535 that will give added difficulties.

    1.16) How can I enable System V IPC? Ipcs says it isn't configured in.

    There's nothing you need to do to enable System V IPC, but on boot up "ipcs" always says:

    	IPC status from <running system> as of <date>
    	Message Queue facility not in system.
    	Shared Memory facility not in system.
    	Semaphore facility not in system.
    

    This just means that noone has yet used the Message Queue/Shared Memory or Semaphore facility yet. They'll be loaded on first use.

    If you really want to have them loaded at boot time, add the following to /etc/system:

    	forceload: sys/msgsys
    	forceload: sys/semsys
    	forceload: sys/shmsys
    

    2. MORE INFO

    2.1) How can I RTFM when I don't have it anymore?

    "RTFM" is an old saying: Read The "Fine" Manual. Sun still sell printed manuals, but doesn't automatically distribute them. As with all real UNIX systems, you do get a full set of online "man" pages. A smaller, lighter, bookshelf-friendly :-) CD-ROM called "The AnswerBook"(tm) contains all the printed documents in machine-readable (PostScript) form, with hypertext capabilities and a keyword search engine. 90% of your introductory questions are answered therein!

    In Solaris 2.x the Answerbook set gets increasingly more divided into pieces. It is currently split over a number of CDs, currently (2.5.1):

    	Solaris 2.x CD:
    	    Solaris 2.x User AnswerBook
    

    Solaris Desktop 1.x Wabi 2.x Answerbook Solaris Common Desktop Environment AnswerBook 1.0.x

    Updates for Solaris Operating Environment 2.x Solaris 2.x on Sun Hardware Answerbook

    Server Supplement NSKit 1.2 answerbook Solaris 2.x System Administrator AnswerBook (Solaris 2.5.1 Supplemental System Admin AnswerBook) Solaris 2.x Reference Manual AnswerBook

    Solstice AutoClient & AdminSuite Solstice AutoClient 2.0 AnswerBook Solstice AdminSuite 2.2 AnswerBook

    Solstice Online Disksuite DiskSuite 4.0 AnswerBook

    Solstice Backup Solstice Backup 4.2 AnswerBook

    Solaris 2.x Software Developer Kit All programming manuals.

    Solaris 2.x Driver Developer Kit Device driver developer manuals.

    Only the first two CDs ship with the desktop edition, the third is SPARC specific. The last two CDs are part of two separate products; the SDK and DDK. The rest is server only, though the reference manuals are available in nroff source form.

    There is some overlap between CDs.

    As distributed with 2.1 and 2.2, the Answerbook search engine runs only with the OpenWindows ("xnews") server, not with MIT X11. This changed in 2.3. If you are using the MIT server instead of what Sun provides, you'll have to use one of several "answerbook workaround" scripts that are in circulation. The AnswerBook distributed with 2.3 and later runs with the OW3.3 X11R5+DPS server, so it should display on any X11+DPS server, such as on DEC, IBM and SGI workstations.

    You should buy (or print from within Answerbook) at least the reference manual and the System and Network Administration books, because if your system becomes disabled you won't be able to run the Answerbook to find out how to fix it...

    2.2) Why is "man -k" so confused?

    Solaris man uses a manual page index file called "windex" in place of the old "whatis" file. You can build this index with

    	      catman -w -M <man-page-directory>
    

    But, in 2.1, this will result in numerous "line too long" messages and a bogus windex file in /usr/share/man, and a core dump in /usr/openwin/man. (In 2.2, catman works in /usr/share/man, but says "line too long" in /usr/openwin/man). To add injury to insult, "man" normally won't show you a man page if it can't find the windex entry, even though the man page exists.

    There's a "makewhatis" script in /usr/openwin/man that works better than catman. But watch it - by default it searches files in /usr/man, not in openwin, and it only looks in some predefined man subdirectories. Try changing its "for ..." command to "for i in man*", then use it like this: cd /usr/share/man; /usr/openwin/man/makewhatis . cd /usr/openwin/man; /usr/openwin/man/makewhatis .

    Still (!), the openwin windex file is somewhat hosed (try "man answerbook" :-(. You can always delete the bogus lines manually... or, you can alias man to "man -F", forcing it to look for the bloody file like you asked.

    But wait, there's more! To see the read(2) man page, you can't just type "man 2 read" anymore - it has to be "man -s 2 read". Or, alias man to this little script:

    	    #!/bin/sh
    	    if [ $# -gt 1 -a "$1" -gt "0" ]; then
    		    /bin/man -F -s $*
    	    else
    		    /bin/man -F $*
    	    fi
    

    2.3) What Software is available for Solaris 2.x?

    Most commercial software that ran on 4.x either will run in BCP mode, or is available for Solaris 2.x, or is being ported now. Solaris 2.3 BCP mode finally supports statically-linked executables.

    You can obtain a list of official 3rd party porting commitments, maintained by Sun's "Solaris Demand Center" (whatever that is), by sending electronic mail to "sparc_products@thegift.sun.com" -- this is an automatic reply server. The list shows what third party applications are currently available for Solaris, and lists expected dates for many more.

    Sun's web pages contain a searchable index of commercial programs and a link to an outside contractor who gathers data on free and public domain programs

    A list of freeware (some "public domain", but mostly copyright- but-freely-distributable) [as well as commercial software??] that has been ported to Solaris 2.x is posted monthly to the newsgroup comp.unix.solaris by ric@coronacorp.com (Richard Steinberger). Look for this:

    Subject: Solaris SW list. Monthly Post.

    If you can't wait, the list is also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://sheffield.isl.sri.com/pub/solaris/solaris-sw-list.txt

    Some software that invariably needs minor tweaking after an OS upgrade is included here specially. It's almost always necessary to recompile it after an OS upgrade, but if that still doesn't give a working version, make sure you check the archives for the latest version:

    Top - a process monitor

    Lsof - list open files

    Identd - a daemon that implements RFC1413

    2.4) What FTP/WWW sites do I need to know about?

    www.sun.com Sun's own WWW site, contains pointers to Sunsites, patches and has lots of info, press releases etc, etc.

    Solaris transition home page Sun's Solaris 2.x migration support

    SunSites - Sun sponsored sites. Lots of good stuff there.

    Sun SITE AskERIC at Syracuse University - Syracuse
    Sun SITE Australia at Australian National University - Canberra
    Sun SITE Central Europe at RWTH-Aachen - Germany
    Sun SITE Chile at Universidad de Chile - Santiago
    Sun SITE Czech Republic at Charles University - Prague
    Sun SITE Denmark at Aalborg University - Aalborg
    Sun SITE Digital Library at University of California at Berkeley
    Sun SITE France at Conservatoire National des Arts-et-Metiers - Paris
    Sun SITE Hong Kong at University of Science and Tech. - Hong Kong
    Sun SITE Hungary at Lajos Kossuth University, Debrecen - Hungary
    Sun SITE Italy at University of Milan - Milan
    Sun SITE Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem - Jerusalem
    Sun SITE Japan at Science University - Tokyo
    Sun SITE Korea at Seoul National University - Seoul
    Sun SITE Mexico at Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico - Mexico
    Sun SITE Nordic at Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan - Stockholm
    Sun SITE Northern Europe at Imperial College - London
    Sun SITE People's Republic of China at Tsinghua University - Beijing
    Sun SITE Poland at Warsaw University - Warsaw
    Sun SITE Russia at Moscow State University - Moscow
    Sun SITE Thailand at Assumption University - Bangkok
    Sun SITE Spain at Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, RedIRIS - Madrid
    Sun SITE Singapore at National University of Singapore - Singapore
    Sun SITE South Africa at University of the Witwatersrand - Johannesburg
    Sun SITE USA at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill

    Solaris at UMBC - Solaris tips & tricks by Vijay Gill

    ftp.x.org - the master X11 site

    ftp.quintus.com:/pub/GNU - GNU binaries

    ftp.uu.net - UuNet communication archives
    (mirrors abovementioned GNU binaries in systems/gnu/solaris2.3)

    OpCom. (opcom.sun.ca) - run by Sun Microsystems' OpCom group - lots of stuff. Here is some of the stuff that's online:

    prep.ai.mit.edu and the GNU mirrors

    pub/gnu/sparc-sun-solaris2 - recent gcc binaries for SPARC
    pub/gnu/i486-sun-solaris2 - recent gcc binaries for i486

    server.berkeley.edu:/pub/x86solaris - x86 stuff

    ftp.fwi.uva.nl

    2.5) What other FAQ's do I need to know about?

    All of them :-). But in particular you should see these FAQ's:

    1) Sun Computer Administration Frequently Asked Questions

    2) The "Solaris 2 Porting FAQ"

    3) comp.windows.open-look - Anything related to OpenWindows or the OPEN LOOK Graphical User Interface.

    4) The Sun-Managers mailing list (see below) has its own FAQ, maintained by John DiMarco <jdd@cdf.toronto.edu>. FTP from ra.mcs.anl.gov in the sun-managers directory.

    5) See also the "Solaris SW list. Monthly Post" above and the "whatlist" file.

    6) The Sun Security Bulletin announcement mailing list. Low volume, announcement only list. Subscribe by mailing security-alert@sun.com with subject "SUBSCRIBE cws user@some.host"

    2.6) What mailing lists should I get?

    First, read all the USENET newsgroups with "sun" in their name :-)

    1) The Florida SunFlash is a "closed" mailing list for Sun owners. It contains mostly press releases from Sun and third-party vendors. This list contains information on conferences such as the Solaris Developer's Conference as well. It is normally distributed regionally - to find out about a mail point in your area, or for other information send mail to info-sunflash@Sun.COM.

    Subscription requests should be sent to sunflash-request@Sun.COM. Archives are on solar.nova.edu, ftp.uu.net, sunsite.unc.edu, src.doc.ic.ac.uk and ftp.adelaide.edu.au

    2) The Sun Managers list is an unmoderated mailing list for emergency-only requests. Subscribe and listen for a while, and read the regularly-posted Policy statement BEFORE sending mail to it, and to get a feel for what kinds of traffic it carries. Write to sun-managers-request@eecs.nwu.edu.

    2.7) What books should I read?

    O'Reilly & Associates specializes in UNIX books. Their "UNIX In A Nutshell" has been updated for SVR4 and Solaris 2.0. Get their catalog by calling 800-998-9938 (1-707-829-0515) 7AM to 5PM PST.

    SunSoft Press carries books specific to Solaris 2. Look for the inset with your End User Media Kit that lists the most relevant ones.

    Prentice-Hall has reprints of much of the AT&T documentation. I'm not sure how much of this you need - a lot of the same material is in the Answerbook (see above).

    2.8) What hardware is supported by Solaris 2.x for Intel?

    The complete and often updated list Solaris x86 hardware options can be obtained by sending an email message without subject/body to:

    	    x86hcl@sun.com	(ascii)
    	    x86hcl.ps@sun.com	(postscript)
    

    or

    	    x86-hwconfig@Cypress.West.Sun.Com
    

    This address currently sends out info on Solaris 2.4.

    2.9) What is Wabi?

    Wabi is Sun's new MS-Windows-under-unix emulator. The Wabi faqs can be obtained by sending an empty message to:

    	    wabi1.0-questions@East.Sun.com
    	    wabi1.1-questions@East.Sun.com
    

    The list of current Wabi (and future :-) apps can be obtained by mailing:

    	    wabi1.0-apps@East.Sun.COM
    	    wabi1.1-apps@East.Sun.COM
    	    wabi2.0-apps@East.Sun.COM
    

    Applications that execute a lot of X86 code, run fastest on Solaris 2.x_86, as no x86 emulation needs to be done. Applications that are more windows intensive will run better on machines with faster graphics hardware.

    The currently shipping version of Wabi is Wabi 2.0.

    Wabi will not be made available for SunOS 4.1.x.

    2.10) I'm running into some limits of SunOS 4.x, will upgrading to Solaris 2.x help?

    The answer depends on the limit you run into.

    Solaris 2.x supports filesystems upto 1TB, SunOS 4.x requires ODS 1.0 to support filesystems over 2GB. Solaris 2.x (x<=5) doesn't support files > 2GB yet, because of limitations in NFSv2 (32 bit offsets only).

    Solaris 2.x supports a virtually unlimited number of open filedescriptors, SunOS 4.x only supports 256 (default) or 1024 (with Sun DBE 1.x).

    Solaris 2.x supports an unlimited number of pseudo terminals.

    Solaris 2.x supports more SCSI disks.

    Solaris 2.x limits can be tuned in /etc/system, requiring just a reboot. SunOS 4.x limits need to be tweaked in the config file and a new kernel needs to be build and installed.

    NOTE: when the above says "unlimited", it just means that there is no "hard" limit, but performance may degrade over certain values. E.g., setting the number of available fds very high, will cause programs that loop closing all fds to be very slow in starting.

    3. SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION

    3.1) How much disk space do I need to install Solaris 2?

    A full install of 2.2 is supposed to be 164 MB, but that doesn't include swap. Here is a net exchange between Casper Dik and Gil Tene:

    In article <1993Apr2.083549.19177@fwi.uva.nl>, Casper writes:
    |> >How much disc space does SOLARIS take up ? That is should we buy a
    |> >424MB disc or get a 1Gb disc to put it on :-)
    |>
    |> Solaris 2.x takes about as much diskspace as SunOS 4.x:
    |>
    |> Partition/Slice Solaris SunOS
    |> /            10MB     8MB
    |> /usr         78MB    90MB
    |> /var         10MB    10MB
    |> /usr/openwin 83MB    83MB
    

    Gil replies: On my system, with a full Solaris installation (EVERYTHING selected) + gnu's binary stuff for solaris (off of the Catalyst CD) installed in /opt I see a similar situation to the above plus :

    16852   /opt/SUNWabe
    19      /opt/SUNWcg12
    7968    /opt/SUNWdiag
    721     /opt/SUNWgt
    7740    /opt/SUNWits
    14609   /opt/cygnus-sol2-1.0
    

    (output from "du -k -s /opt/*")

    - SUNWabe is the end user answerbook stuff. (vi, mail, Deskset tools etc, etc)

    - SUNWcg12 is (obviously) cg12 support.

    - SUNWdiag is obvious too.

    - SUNWgt is support for gt boards.

    - SUNWits is the xgl3.0 library (it has libPEX5.so.1 in there too).

    - cygnus-sol2-1.0 is the gcc2.0+tools stuff. I have gcc2.3.3 on another partition and that takes about the same space as 2.0 does.

    Another important note : The full Solaris 2.1 answerbook takes up 164MB on disk. I highly recommend installing it and not using it off the CDROM drive. It's much more usable (faster) this way. And it always stays around -- even when you have something else in the CDROm drive.

    3.2) How can I convert all my local changes that I've made over the years into their corresponding forms on Solaris 2?

    1) Do it by hand. You did document every single change and check it into RCS, didn't you?

    2) Automate it, using the AMToolkit (Administration Migration Toolkit) from the OpCom FTP server (q.v.)!

    3.3) What are "packages"?

    A SVR4 mechanism for "standardizing" the installation of optional software. Most vendors are expected to use this format for distributing add-on software for Solaris 2.x.

    Packages can be installed/deinstalled with pkgadd/pkgrm which are standard SVR4 items, or with swm (CRT) or swmtool (GUI-based) which are provided only in Solaris 2.

    Note that the "pkg" system keeps lots of files in /var/sadm/install, and in particular the file "contents", which is hundreds of KB, and that there are two copies of it while pkgadd is running, so you needs lots of free space where /var is, typically the root. This file must be kept around if you want, for example, to use pkgrm to remove a package, or pkgchk to verify months later that all of a a package's files are still intact.

    Summary of pkg* commands:

    	    pkginfo <pkg>   - test for presents of package.
    	    pkgadd -d /<cdrom>/Solaris_2.3 <pkg ...>
    			    - add missing packages
    	    pkgrm <pkg ...> - remove packages.
    	    pkgchk -q <pkg> - test for existence of package
    	    pkgchk <options> [pkg] - check installed packages for
    	    integrity.
    

    3.4) Why can't I write in/mount over /home?

    SunOS 5.x is delivered with the "automounter" enabled. The automounter is designed for NFS sites, to simplify maintenance of the list of filesystems that need mounting. However it is a burden for standalone sites.

    The automounter takes over /home and in effect becomes the NFS server for it, so it no longer behaves like a normal directory. This is normally a Good Thing as it simplifies administration if everybody's home directory is /home/<username>.

    To kill it off for standalone or small networks, you can comment out the three lines in /etc/init.d/nfs.client that start "if" (from the if to the fi!!), and reboot (Solaris 2.2) or remove the file /etc/rc2.d/S*autofs (Solaris 2.3 and later, the number depends on the OS release). You can always relink that file with /etc/init.d/autofs if you change your mind.

    To learn about it, read the O'Reilly book "Managing NFS and NIS", or ftp the white paper 'The Art of Automounting". from sunsite.unc.edu in the directory /pub/sun-info/white-papers.

    3.5) Why can't I access CDs or floppies?

    Solaris 2.2 introduces a new scheme for automatically mounting removable media. It consists of a program "vold" (volume daemon) which sits around watching for insertions of floppies and CD's, handles ejects, talks to the file manager, and invokes a second program called "rmmount" (removable media mounter) to mount the disk.

    Note that on most SPARCstations, you must run "volcheck" whenever you insert a floppy, as the floppy hardware doesn't tell SunOS that a floppy was inserted and polling the drive would wear it out pretty quickly.

    Advantages of this scheme:

    - no longer need root; users can mount and unmount at will.
    - can do neat tricks like automagically start "workman" or
      other Audio CD player when audio CD inserted.
    - extensible - developers can write their own actions
    

    Drawbacks:

    - can no longer access /dev/rfd0 to get at floppy; must use
      longer name like /vol/dev/rdsk/floppy0
    - similarly, CD's get mounted on /cdrom/VOLNAME/SLICE, e.g.,
      /cdrom/solaris_2_2/s0 is slice 0 of the Solaris 2 CD
      (nice that it does mount all the partitions, though!).
    

    To read or write a non-filesystem floppy (tar, cpio, etc), put in the diskette and run "volcheck" from the commandline or click "Check for Floppy" in the filemgr to get it noticed; then access /vol/dev/rfd0/unlabeled (e.g. "tar tvf /vol/dev/rfd0/unlabeled").

    [Solaris 2.3 and later: /vol/dev/rdiskette0/unlabeled, or /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0.]

    If you want the old behavior, remove the /etc/rc2.d/S*volmgt link.

    3.6) Why are there no passwords in /etc/passwd?

    System V Release 4 includes a feature called "shadow passwords". The encrypted passwords are moved out into a shadow password file (called /etc/shadow in this release) that is NOT publicly readable. The passwd file has always been readable so that, for example, ls -l could figure out who owns what. But having the passwd encryptions readable is a security risk (they can't be decrypted but the bad guy can encrypt common words and names &c and compare them with the encryptions).

    The Shadow Password feature is mostly transparent, but if you do any passwd hacking you have to know about it! And DO make sure that /etc/shadow is not publicly readable!

    3.7) Why can't I rlogin/telnet in as root?

    >... when I try to rlogin as root ... >it gives me the message "Not on system console >Connection closed.". What have I left out?

    Solaris 2 comes out of the box a heck of a lot more secure than Solaris 1. There is no '+' in the hosts.equiv. root logins are not allowed anywhere except the console. All accounts require passwords. In order to allow root logins over the net, you need to edit the /etc/default/login file and comment out or otherwise change the CONSOLE= line.

    /etc/hosts.equiv is still supported, but there is no default.

    This file's CONSOLE entry can actually be used in a variety of ways:

    1) CONSOLE=/dev/console (default) - direct root logins only on console
    2) CONSOLE=/dev/ttya - direct root logins only on /dev/ttya
    3) CONSOLE= - direct root logins disallowed everywhere
    4) #CONSOLE (or delete the line) - root logins allowed everywhere

    3.8) How can I have a user without a password?

    There are basically two ways to achieve this:

    Edit /etc/default/login and comment out PASSREQ=YES or change it to PASSREQ=NO.

    The second way is to give a particular use no password with the following entry in /etc/shadow:

    user::9092:9999:9999::::
    

    3.9) How can I set up anonymous FTP?

    If you need help, ftp the file "ftp.anon" from ftp://ftp.math.fsu.edu/pub/solaris/ftp.anon.

    ftpd(1M) is nearly complete when it comes to setting up anonymous ftp. It only leaves out /etc/nsswitch.conf. [S2.3]

    Additionally, you must make sure that the filesystem ~ftp resides on is not mounted with the nosuid option.

    For security reasons, it is important that no files under ~ftp are owned by ftp.

    3.10) How can I print from a Solaris 2 (or any System V Release 4) system to a SunOS4.x (or any other BSD) system?

    The easiest way would be using the GUI-based Admintool which has a Printer Manager that is supposed to be able to do all this and more.

    Hmmm, the lp system is totally different than what you're used to. The System V Line Printer System is a lot more, well, flexible. A cynic might say "complicated". Here's a very quick guide -- see the man pages for each of these commands for the details.

    Let's say your Solaris2 workstation is called "sol" and the 4.1.x server is called "bertha" and you want the printer name to be "printer" (imaginative, eh?).

    sol# lpsystem -t bsd bertha             # says bertha is a bsd system
    sol# lpadmin -p printer -s bertha       # creates "printer" on "sol"
    					    # to be printed on "bertha"
    sol# accept printer                     # allow queuing
    sol# enable printer                     # allow printing
    sol# lpstat -t                          # check the status
    

    Finally, if that's your only printer, make it the default:

    sol# lpadmin -d printer
    

    On some systems you may have to turn on the port monitor.

    3.11) Why does lp complain about invalid content types?

    For better or for worse, you need to know about printer content types. See the man page for "lpadmin".

    To get transparent mode, try this:

    sol# lpadmin -I any -p printer
    

    3.12) My jobs stay in the queue after printing.

    It's a known bug, and looks fixed in 2.5. There's also a number of lpsched patches out for Solaris: 101025-xx (2.2), 101317-xx (2.3), 101959-xx (2.4) and 101960-xx (2.4/x86). Make sure you install those.

    Regardless of what other patches you apply, if you have a printer connected to your system running Solaris 2.4 or later, and if that printer uses NeWSprint software, you must apply patch 102113-xx. This patch is included on the Solaris CD in 2.4 and later releases. This patch is also required if you are running Solaris 2.3 with kernel jumbo patch 101318-55 or later. Note that this is a NeWSprint patch, not a Solaris patch, and hence it will never be integrated into any Solaris release.

    "lpstat" on the clients on a regular basis, for some reason this clears the old files from the queue directories.

    3.13) Are there any alternatives to the system V spooler?

    Sun's Solaris migration team has a new printing solution available: SunSoft Print Client

    It has many new features, including printcap-like printer configurations that can be shared via NIS, and currently the ability to be configured so that lpsched does not have to be run anymore on client-only systems (although you still need to run lpsched in order for admintool to work.)

    Alternatively, you can get a Solaris port of the BSD lpr system from the following FTP site (get lpr-sol2-*.tar.gz):

    ftp.eng.auburn.edu:/pub/doug

    3.14) What happened to /dev/MAKEDEV? How do I add devices?

    Device drivers are linked in dynamically. When you add new devices, just shutdown the system and do

    	    boot -r # use drive spec if not default disk
    
    to rebuild the /devices and /dev directories.

    If you're just adding a SCSI disk, you don't need to reboot. Run the following script (as root):

    #!/bin/sh
    #
    # add-disk
    #
    #       Runs the commands to make Solaris locate a new disk that
    #       has been plugged in after the system was booted.
    #
    

    /usr/sbin/drvconfig /usr/sbin/devlinks /usr/sbin/disks # or /usr/sbin/tapes for tapes /usr/ucb/ucblinks # Compatibility links

    exit 0

    Note that this only works if you already have at least one SCSI disk on the system. (This is because the above just makes symbolic links and things, it does not load up the SCSI driver kernel modules, etc.)

    3.15) Why isn't my tape/cd player or new disk/device recognized?

    Devices must be turned on and present when you configure the system. After adding devices you must boot -r with all the devices turned on. See also 3.14

    3.16) What happened to /etc/rc and /etc/rc.local?

    They're now fragmented into 12 million tiny little pieces. Look in the following files to get oriented:

    	    /etc/inittab - defines which programs init starts and when.
    	    /sbin/rcS, /etc/rcS.d/* - booting stuff
    	    /sbin/rc2, /etc/rc2.d/*,
    		    /sbin/rc3, /etc/rc3.d/* - stuff for multi-user startup.
    
    Note that all files in /etc/rc*.d/* are hardlinked from /etc/init.d (with better names), so you should grep in there.

    There are many "run levels" to the System V init; the run level 3 is normally used for "multi user with networking."

    When executing the scripts in an /etc/rc?.d directory, the K* scripts are executed first, followed by the S* scripts. Scripts ending in .sh are executed in the same shell and can be used to set environment variables used further on in the same directory.

    A basic startup script looks like this:

    #!/bin/sh
    # Sample init.d script.
    # Install a copy under /etc/init.d/your-daemon
    # make links to /etc/rc2.d/Sxxyour-daemon (or rc3.d)
    # and /etc/rc[01].d/Kxxyour-daemon.
    # Scripts ending in .sh are executed with the sh "." command.
    # Scripts not ending in .sh are executed as "sh script"
    

    case "$1" in start) #... commands to start daemon .... ;; stop) #... commands to stop daemon .... ;; esac

    3.17) Can't I have /etc/rc.local back?

    No. You can never have rc.local back the way it was. But then, it never really was purely a "local" rc file. To have a real "local" rc file with just your changes in it, copy this file into /etc/init.d/rc.local, and ln it to /etc/rc3.d/S99rc.local. Put your startup stuff in the "start" section.

    #!/sbin/sh
    # /etc/init.d/rc.local - to be linked into /etc/rc3.d as
    # S99rc.local -- a place to hang local startup stuff.
    # started after everything else when going multi-user.
    

    # Ian Darwin, Toronto, November, 1992 # As with all system changes, use at own risk!

    case "$1" in 'start') echo "Starting local services...\c"

    if [ -f /usr/sbin/mydaemon ]; then /usr/sbin/mydaemon fi echo "" ;; 'stop') echo "$0: Not stopping any services." ;; *) echo "Usage: $0 { start | stop }" ;; esac

    3.18) Why are there two versions of shutdown?

    SVR4 (hence SunOS 5.x) tries to make everybody happy. The traditional (slow) System V "shutdown" runs all the rc0.d/* shell scripts with "stop" as the argument; many of them run ps(!) to look for processes to kill. The UCB "shutdown" tells init to kill all non-single-user processes, which is about two orders of magnitude faster. Unfortunately, the UCB version does everything it should except actually halt or reboot in SunOS5.1 (and some other SVR4 implementations). This is fixed in Solaris 2.3.

    If you run a database (like oracle) or INN, you should install a special /etc/rc0.d/K* script and make sure you always shutdown the long way.

    3.19) When will somebody publish a package of the BSD (4.3BSD Net2) "init", "getty", and "rc/rc.local", so we can go back to life in the good old days?

    Getty should be easy and was reportedly done at a number of sites. The port monitor isn't everyones favorite. But given that you can do much more with the SVR4 init, why would you want to change back? It would be much more trouble than it's worth.

    3.20) What has happened to getty? What is pmadm and how do you use it?

    I was hoping you wouldn't ask. PMadm stands for Port Monitor Admin, and it's part of a ridiculously complicated bit of software over-engineering that is destined to make everybody an expert.

    Best advice for workstations: don't touch it! It works out of the box. For servers, you'll have to read the manual. This should be in admintool in Solaris2.3. For now, here are some basic instructions from Davy Curry.

    "Not guaranteed, but they worked for me."

    To add a terminal to a Solaris system:

    1. Do a "pmadm -l" to see what's running. The serial ports on the CPU board are probably already being monitored by "zsmon".

    PMTAG          PMTYPE         SVCTAG         FLGS ID       <PMSPECIFIC>
    zsmon          ttymon         ttya           u    root     \
    	    /dev/term/a I - /usr/bin/login - 9600 ldterm,ttcompat ttya \
    	    login:  - tvi925 y  #
    

    2. If the port you want is not being monitored, you need to create a new port monitor with the command

    	    sacadm -a -p PMTAG -t ttymon -c /usr/lib/saf/ttymon -v VERSION
    

    where PMTAG is the name of the port monitor, e.g. "zsmon" or "alm1mon", and VERSION is the output of "ttyadm -V".

    3. If the port you want is already being monitored, and you want to change something, you need to delete the current instance of the port monitor. To do this, use the command

    	    pmadm -r -p PMTAG -s SVCTAG
    

    where PMTAG and SVCTAG are as given in the output from "pmadm -l". Note that if the "I" is present in the <PMSPECIFIC> field (as it is above), you need to get rid of it.

    4. Now, to create a specific instance of ttymon for a port, issue the command:

    pmadm -a -p PMTAG -s SVCTAG -i root -fu -v 1 -m \
    	    "`ttyadm -m ldterm,ttcompat -p 'PROMPT' -S YORN -T TERMTYPE \
    	    -d DEVICE -l TTYID -s /usr/bin/login`"
    

    Note the assorted quotes; Bourne shell (sh) and Korn (ksh) users leave off the second backslash!

    In the above:

    PMTAG is the port monitor name you made with "sacadm", e.g. "zsmon".

    SVCTAG is the service tag, which can be the name of the port, e.g., "ttya" or "tty21".

    PROMPT is the prompt you want to print, e.g. "login: ".

    YORN is "y" to turn software carrier on (you want this for directly connected terminals" and "n" to leave it off (you want this for modems).

    TERMTYPE is the value you want in $TERM.

    DEVICE is the name of the device, e.g. "/dev/term/a" or "/dev/term/21".

    TTYID is the line you want from /etc/ttydefs that sets the baud rate and stuff. I suggest you use one of the "contty" ones for directly connected terminals.

    5. To disable ("turn off") a terminal, run

    	    pmadm -d -p PMTAG -s SVCTAG
    

    To enable ("turn on") a terminal, run

    	    pmadm -e -p PMTAG -s SVCTAG
    

    Ports are enabled by default when you "create" them as above.

    For more details, see: Celeste's Tutorial on Solaris 2.x Modems & Terminals

    3.21) How do I get the screen to blank when nobody's using it?

    Under 4.1.x you invoke screenblank in /etc/rc.local, but there's no screenblank in Solaris 2.1. Sun recommends that you have everybody put `xset s on' in their .xinitrc, but this may be hard to police, and in any event it won't work when nobody is logged in. The simplest workaround is to copy /usr/bin/screenblank from 4.1.x and run it in binary compatibility mode. See ``What happened to /etc/rc and /etc/rc.local?'' for how to invoke it.

    Another possibility is to use xdm or dtlogin. That way the X server will continue to run and the screen will be blanked by it.

    The 4.1.x screenblank didn't work for us; We use Jef Poskanzer's freeware screenblank. His version is available from http://www.acme.com/software/screenblank/

    Because of a bug in Solaris 2.3, you'll may to specify -DHAVE_POLL=0 when compiling this version.

    Solaris 2.4 comes with power management software for those systems with a soft-switchable power supply. That may suit your needs better than screenblank. In Solaris 2.5 the software can remove the sync signal from your monitor causing newer monitors to go in energy saving standby mode.

    The power-management software is on the SMCC Updates CD [2.4 2.5]

    The power-management software can be used to switch off just the screen, by putting the following in the power.conf file:

    # Name                  Threshold(s)     Logical Dependent(s)
    /dev/kbd                600
    /dev/mouse              600
    /dev/fb                 0 0             /dev/kbd /dev/mouse
    

    Make sure you mark the "autoshutdown" line with "noshutdown" if you want keep your machine running.

    The /usr/openwin/bin/dtpower utility can change these settings for you. (Solaris 2.5)

    3.22) And what about screendump, screenload and clear_colormap?

    You can FTP Jef's screenload, screendump, etc., if you need that functionality, and for free you get a pixrect (clone) library. Get one of these: http://www.acme.com/software/raster-pixrect/
    ee.lbl.gov:/raster-pixrect_30dec93.tar.Z

    The 4.1.x versions of these programs will not run under Solaris 2.2 or later. The pixrect BCP library is no longer supported.

    3.23) Where did etherfind go?

    There is a replacement for etherfind, but it has changed name; in fact it's a whole new program. It IS better. To find it, though, you would have to realize that network snooping is not really Ethernet-specific. To end the suspense :-), here it is:

    % man -k snoop
    snoop   snoop (1m)      - capture network packets and inspect them
    %
    

    It works differently - it has an immediate mode, a capture-to-disk mode, and a playback-from-disk mode. Read the man page for details.

    The capture file format is described in RFC 1761.

    3.24) Can I run SunOS4.1.x on my SPARC Classic, LX, SS5, SS4, SS20, Voyager, SS1000, SC2000, CS6400, Ultra?

    The Classic, LX and the single processor models of the SS20 are still supported under some version of SunOS 4.1.x. A lot of people wanted these machines but only if they ran SunOS 4.1.x. When the Classic/LX came out, clone manufacturers were able to provide SunOS 4.1.x with it, Sun came out with SunOS 4.1.3C some time later.

    The Classic, LX, SS4, SS5 and SS20 are supported in the most recent Solaris 1.x release, SunOS 4.1.4 (Solaris 1.1.2). The Classic and LX are supported since 4.1.3C (release for LX & Classic only), the SS20/SS5 since release 4.1.3_U1 rev B (Solaris 1.1.1B). The SS4 and SS20 with HyperSPARC since 4.1.4. Note that none of these OS versions support SuperSPARC MP or any of the new graphics hardware (ZX, TZX, SX, S24). The TCX adapter is only supported as a cgthree, and SunOS 4.x doesn't use all its acceleration features.

    The Voyager is not supported under SunOS 4.1.x, too many new device drivers have been added plus the suspend resume feature.

    The XDbus machines SS1000/SC2000 are also not supported under SunOS 4.1.x. Support for the kernel architecture and XDBus is missing in 4.x.

    The UltraSPARC based machines are not supported under SunOS 4.1.x. The new supervisor mode instructions, the new MMU, buses and devices are not supported under 4.1.x.

    The largest Solaris 2.x machine you can currently buy is the Cray Research CS6400, running a modified version of 2.3 or 2.4 called "Cray Solaris". It supports upto 64 SuperSPARC processors.

    3.25) The "find" program complains that my root directory doesn't exist?

    Yes! Actually, messages like

    find : cannot open /: No such file or directory.

    are due to a bug in the tree walking function (nftw(3)).

    Fixed in 2.4 and in the 2.3 kernel jumbo patch 101318 (-41 or later)

    3.26) I'm having troubles with high-speed input on the Sparc serial ports. What should I do?

    Try using UUCP. The Solaris 2.x sparc serial driver has trouble receiving data at or above 9600 bps. Symptoms include sluggish response, `NOTICE: zs0: silo overflow' console messages, sending spurious control-Gs to the serial port, and applications that cannot be killed even with `kill -9'. This problem surfaces in many applications, including Kermit and tip. UUCP seems immune, though, because its protocol throttles input sufficiently.

    People have reported success in later releases of Solaris (2.3+).

    Solaris 2.5 supports much higher baudrates and hardware flowcontrol in two directions. The latter is also available as a patch for 2.3 (102028) and 2.4 (102845, note that this patch conflicts with patch 102062-08, which should be installed first if at all). The zs device can be set to 38400bps in 2.4 and earlier and 76800 in 2.5 and later.

    3.27) How do I make ksh or csh be the login shell for root?

    Root's shell is /sbin/sh, which is statically linked. Don't just insert a 'c' before "sh" as previously, as that would look for /sbin/csh, which doesn't exist. Don't just change it to /bin/csh, since that's really /usr/bin/csh, which is dynamically linked, because:
    1) /usr may not be mounted initially, and then you're in deep (the shared libraries are in /usr!), and
    2) There is code in the startup scripts that assumes that everything critical is in /etc/lib, not /usr/lib. Approach with caution!

    Safer bet - have an alternate root account, like "rootcsh", with uid 0, and /bin/csh as its shell. Put it after root's entry in the passwd file. Only drawback: you now have to remember to change all of root's passwords at the same time.

    Third bet - in root's .profile, check if /usr is mounted and, if so, exec /bin/ksh or whatever.

    3.28) What is this message: "automount: No network locking on host, contact administrator to install server change."?

    The other machine (an NFS server) is running 4.1.x and needs a patch from Sun to update its network lock daemon (lockd). If you don't install the patch on the server, file locking will not work on files mounted from "thathost". The lockd jumbo patch fixes a bunch of other lock manager problems, so it may be a Good Thing To Get; however, it may also cause the machine on which the patch is installed to have trouble talking to servers with no patch or older patches, so Be Warned.

    The lockd patches are: 100988 (4.1.3), 101817 (4.1-4.1.2) 101784 (4.1.3_U1), 102264 (4.1.4) and 100518 (for Online: Disksuite).

    Make sure you install the latest version of those patches.

    3.29) I have all kinds of problems with SCSI disks under Solaris 2.x They worked fine under SunOS 4.x.

    Append this line to /etc/system and reboot:

    	set scsi_options & ~0x80
    

    This turns off Command Queuing, which upsets rather a lot of SCSI drives.

    In Solaris 2.4 and later you can set those options per SCSI bus. See isp(7) and esp(7).

    For some disks, all you need to do is decrease the maximum number of queued commands:

    	forceload: drv/esp
    	set sd:sd_max_throttle=10
    

    3.30) How do I make Solaris2 use my old ADAPTEC ACB-4000 and Emulex MD-21 diskcontrollers?

    As with any hardware addition, first try the obvious (boot -r after installing and power-cycling everything).

    The adaptec is no longer supported; man -s7 sd no longer even lists it! So I guess they go over the cliff. Either that, or take the drives out and put them on a PC, where ST506 MFM drives are still supported.

    The MD21 should work, though some people report that SCSI doesn't work in 4/260 boxes (bug-id #1118752), but that's fixed in 2.3 and later.

    3.31) Should I wait installing 2.5 until there are enough patches?

    Several things have been done differently during the development of Solaris 2.5. More internal users run versions of Solaris 2.5 no more than one or two weeks old. A number of large customers ran 2.5 beta releases on production systems, in exchange for virtually unlimited engineering support for those machine.

    Coupled with some other development policies this has resulted in a release of very high quality that doesn't come with 36 patches on the first release CD, instead with just 5 for OpenWindows and a number for unbundled products.

    Solaris 2.5 should run most everything without requiring patches.

    3.32) Why are there so many patches for Solaris 2.x?

    Solaris 2.x releases are essentially frozen several months before their general release date. During the early access/beta test period bugs are found both in the beta and in the previous release. That's why at the moment a new release comes out a number of patches is ready. Some of those are on the Solaris 2.x CD. Others were released almost at the same time as 2.x, or even before 2.x becomes generally available.

    Some bugs are found in the previous release that can't be fixed in the time for the next release. And bugs get added to new code.

    3.33) What are the ``mandatory'' patches I keep hearing about?

    The mandatory patches weren't mandatory, so they've been relabeled. They're now called ``recommended'' patches.

    The recommended patches are those patches Sun recommends for trouble free system operation. With those patches installed, your chances on trouble free operation are higher. That doesn't mean you will run into trouble without them.

    These recommended patches can be anonymously ftp'ed from official Sun ftp sites.

    3.34) Which patches should I apply?

    "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." In general you should only apply patches for security related problems. For each and every other patch you must consider two things: have I encountered this bug or am I very likely to encounter this bug in the near future. If neither is true, it is often best not to apply the patch. You have a working system, why patch it? Patches do occasionally introduce new bugs and not applying patches is the best way to prevent those new bugs.

    You should, however, install all patches that come with the Solaris 2.x CDs. Those patches have been tested together and supplement the base OS to the supported level. Some systems won't even boot if those patches aren't installed first.

    3.35) Where do I get patches from?

    Sites not sponsored by Sun, accessible for all:

    ugle.unit.no:/pub/unix/sun-fixes
    ftp.luth.se:/pub/unix/sun/all_patches

    SunSites (carry recommended and security patches):

    sunsite.unc.edu:/pub/sun-info/sun-patches
    sunsite.sut.ac.jp:/pub/sun-info/sun-us/sun-patches
    sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk:/sun/sunsite-sun-info/sun-patches

    Sunsolve:

    sunsolve1.sun.com:/pub/patches
    http://sunsolve1.sun.com/

    These are Sun's own sites, they has the recommended patches up for anonymous ftp, packaged as one huge 2.x_Recommended.tar.Z file and as individual patches.

    Starting with SunSolve CD 2.1.2 ALL Sun patches are shipped on the SunSolve CD.

    Contract customers can get all patches by ftp from Sunsolve or via e-mail and query one of the online sunsolve-databases on the internet.

    3.36) Where can I obtain Solaris 2/x86 driver updates?

    The Solaris x86 driver updates can be obtained by anonymous ftp from:

    ftp.uu.net:/vendor/sun/sun-doc/x-86-driver
    sunsite.unc.edu:/pub/sun-info/solaris-x86/sunsoft-drivers

    3.37) Why does installing patches take so much space in /var/sadm?

    All the files that are replaced by a patch are stored under /var/sadm/patch/<patch-id>/save so the patch can be backed out safely. Newer patches will save the old files under /var/sadm/pkg/<pkg>/save/<patch-id>/undo.Z, for each package patches.

    You can remove the <patchdir>/save directory provided you also remove the <patchdir>/.oldfilessaved file. Newer patches will not install a .oldfilessaved file.

    Alternatively, you can install a patch w/o saving the old files by using the "-d" flag to installpatch.

    3.38) Do I need to back out previous versions of a patch?

    No, unless otherwise stated in the patch README. If the previous patch installation saved the old files, you may want to reclaim that space.

    Patches can be backed out with:

    	    /var/sadm/patch/<patch-id>/backoutpatch <patch-id>
    

    Backoutpatch can take an awful long time, especially when the patch contained a lot of files. This is fixed in later versions of backoutpatch.

    3.39) How can I have more than 48 pseudo-ttys?

    Edit /etc/system and add the following line:

    	* System V pseudo terminals
    

    set pt_cnt = <num>

    Halt the system and boot -r.

    You can essentially have as many as you like, but you'll probably run into some other limit somewhere. More than 3000 are supported.

    In the unlikely event that you run out of BSD-style ptys, you can increase them as well. The maximum there is probably 256 as all programs using BSD ptys need to hardcode all the possible device names and 256 was the maximum previously found in SunOS 4. BSD ttys are awkward to use and all programs I found support SYSV ptys without trouble.

    	* You don't need this.  Increasing this value too much usually
    	* just wastes memory.
    

    set npty = <num>

    Halt the system and boot -r.

    3.40) How can I have normal users chown their files?

    Add the following to /etc/system:

    	set rstchown  = 0
    

    This will defeat the quota system and may compromise the security of your system.

    3.41) How can I get ps to print %MEM and %CPU?

    Prior to Solaris 2.4, the OS didn't do the bookkeeping necessary to obtain these values. In Solaris 2.4 the code was added to kernel and /usr/ucb/ps can now show these values.

    Under Solaris 2.3 and earlier your only recourse is using the public domain utility top (See 2.3).

    3.42) How can I get the DOS and Unix clock to agree on Solaris/x86?

    After installation, run the command /usr/sbin/rtc -z $TZ, where $TZ is your timezone. The default root crontab runs /usr/sbin/rtc -c once everyday.

    That way your clock will give the proper time whether you boot Solaris or DOS/Windows.

    3.43) How can I increase the number of file descriptors per process?

    In 2.3 in earlier this requires poking the kernel. In Solaris 2.4+, this can be accomplished by adding the following lines to /etc/system:

    	* set hard limit on file descriptors
    	set rlim_fd_max = 4096
    	* set soft limit on file descriptors
    	set rlim_fd_cur = 1024
    

    Raising the soft limit past 256 may confuse certain applications, especially BCP applications. Raising the limit past 1024 may confuse applications that use select().

    3.44) Can I install both SunOS and Solaris on the same machine, and choose between them at boot time?

    Yes, that is possible. All partitions other than the system partitions (typically /, /usr, /var and /opt) can be shared by the two OSes. All partitions, including the system partitions, can be mounted and accessed by either OS.

    The easiest way to set this up is to do separate suninstalls on two different disks. Then just choose the appropriate disk at boot time with the PROM's "boot" command.

    Setting up both OSes on one disk is a little harder, but not much. You need to partition the disk to allow for both OSes. Almost any partition layout is possible, but one common setup might be:

     a: / for Solaris 2
     b: swap (shared)
     c: The usual (whole disk)
     d: / for Solaris 1
     e: /usr for Solaris 1
     g: /usr for Solaris 2
    

    Again, it's most reliable to use suninstall to do the installations. If for some reason you choose not to use suninstall, make sure you run installboot for both bootable partitions.

    With this setup, you choose between the two OSes in the PROM's "boot" command as follows:

    To boot Solaris 2: boot To boot Solaris 1: boot disk:d

    NOTE: In boot PROM versions <= 2.5, the "disk:d" syntax is not supported, and the PROM cannot boot from root partitions that begin or end beyond 1GB.

    3.45) How do I disable banner pages under Solaris?

    As root, go to directory /etc/lp/interfaces. Edit the file that corresponds to the printer name. Change the line that reads 'nobanner="no"' to 'nobanner="yes"'.

    3.46) How do I change my hostname?

    The supported way to change your hostname is:

    	# /usr/sbin/sys-unconfig
    

    The system will halt and on subsequent boot will ask for its name and other networking parameters again.

    You may wish to save a copy of /etc/nsswitch.conf beforehand as that file is overwritten by the configuration process.

    3.47) Can I run multiple terminals on the console of Solaris x86 like those supported on Interactive Unix and SCO?

    Yes. In Solaris x86 2.1, these worked 'out of the box'.

    In Solaris x86 2.4, they are no longer configured during the installation, but they still work if configured afterwards by hand. Sun apparently disabled them in this way because they are no longer officially supported, but fortunately, they did not actually remove them from the kernel, so you can configure them back in yourself as follows.

    Add the /dev entries:

    	mknod /dev/vt01 c 100 1
    	mknod /dev/vt02 c 100 2
    	etc...
    

    add the following to /etc/inittab (after the co entry):

    	v1:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT1 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt01 -l console
    	v2:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT2 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt02 -l console
    	etc...
    

    To get init to reread inittab, either reboot, or issue the command:

    	/usr/sbin/init q
    

    Now, Alt-PrintScreen F1 switches to VT1, Alt-PrintScreen F2 switches to VT2, etc, Alt-PrintScreen P switches to previous screen in cyclic sequence, Alt-PrintScreen N switches to next screen in cyclic sequence. Alt-PrintScreen H switches to console screen (and not Alt-PrintScreen F8 as on Interactive Unix)

    3.48) How can I prevent daemons from creating mode 666 files?

    By default, all daemons inherit the umask 0 from init. This is most problematic for a service like ftp, which in a standard configuration leaves all uploaded files with mode 666.

    To get daemons to use another umask execute the following commands in /bin/sh and reboot:

    umask 022  # make sure umask.sh gets created with the proper mode
    echo "umask 022" > /etc/init.d/umask.sh
    for d in /etc/rc?.d
    do
    	ln /etc/init.d/umask.sh $d/S00umask.sh
    done
    

    Note: the trailing ".sh" of the scriptname is important, if you don't specify it, the script will will be executed in a sub-shell, not in the main shell that executes all other scripts.

    3.49) How do I change the terminal type for /dev/console?

    Change the "-T sun" in the following line in /etc/inittab to "-T <termtype>":

    	co:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h \
    		-p "`uname -n` console login: " -T sun \
    		-d /dev/console -l console -m ldterm,ttcompat
    

    (Line broken for readability)

    3.50) If I login over the network, my terminal type is set to "sun"/"AT386" How can I change that? In SunOS 4.x the type would have been "network"

    If no terminal type is specified in the network (telnet/rlogin) protocol, the standard startup scripts (/etc/profile, /etc/.login) will set the terminal type to the default console type (sun for SPARCs, AT386 for x86).

    To get the SunOS 4.x. behaviour back, all you need to do is set the type to "network", if not previously set.

    3.51) How can I change the SYSV IPC parameters?

    The following parameters can be used to change the number of semaphores, the amount of shared memory and the number of IPC messages. They're set in /etc/system, as usual.

    set semsys:seminfo_semusz = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semopm = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semume = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semaem = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semmap = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semvmx = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semmsl = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semmni = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semmns = <value>
    set semsys:seminfo_semmnu = <value>
    

    set shmsys:shminfo_shmmin = <value> set shmsys:shminfo_shmseg = <value> set shmsys:shminfo_shmmax = <value> set shmsys:shminfo_shmmni = <value>

    set msgsys:msginfo_msgseg = <value> set msgsys:msginfo_msgssz = <value> set msgsys:msginfo_msgtql = <value> set msgsys:msginfo_msgmap = <value> set msgsys:msginfo_msgmax = <value> set msgsys:msginfo_msgmnb = <value> set msgsys:msginfo_msgmni = <value>

    4. NETWORKING

    4.1) How do I use DNS w/o using NIS or NIS+?

    Under SunOS 4.1 it was next to impossible to run DNS name resolution without either a kludge fix or the NIS (V2 I guess). Under Solaris 2.1 it is incredibly simple, but you must ignore what the manual (SunOS 5.1 Administering NIS+ and DNS) says (the manual is fixed in Solaris 2.2). All that is required to make a non-NIS host use the DNS for name resolution is to change the host: line in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file to the following:

    hosts:  files dns
    

    (i.e., when looking for hosts, look in /etc/hosts first, if not found there, try DNS, if still not found then give up) and set up a correct version of /etc/resolv.conf to tell the resolver routines (like gethostbyname) how to contact the DNS nameserver. You must have the names of machines which are somehow contacted during boot in the files in /etc and files must appear first in the hosts: line, otherwise the machine will hang during boot (at least ours did). Make sure that /etc/netconfig is as it was shipped. (In Solaris 2.3 and earlier, it will use "switch.so,tcpip.so" for ip, in Solaris 2.4 it just uses "-")

    4.2) Speaking of nsswitch.conf, what is it?

    An idea whose time has come (it came to Ultrix a few years ago). You can control which of the "resolver" services are read from NIS (formerly YP), which from NIS+, which from the files in /etc, and which are from DNS (but only "hosts" can come from DNS).

    A common example would be:

    hosts: nis files
    

    which means ask NIS for host info and, if it's not found, try the local machine's host table as a fall back.

    Advice: if you're not using NIS or DNS, SunInstall probably put the right version in. If you are, ensure that hosts and passwd come from the network. However, many of the other services seldom if ever change. When was that last time you added a line in /etc/protocols? If your workstation has a local disk, it may be better to have programs on your machine look up these services locally, so use "files".

    Terminology: Sun worried over the term "resolver", which technically means any "get info" routine (getpwent(3), gethostbyname(3), etc), but is also specifically attached to the DNS resolver. Therefore they used the term "source" to mean the things after the colon (files/DNS/NIS/NIS+) and "database" to mean the thing before the colon (passwd/group/hosts/services/netgroup etc).

    A complete discussion can be found in nsswitch.conf(4).

    4.3) What does [NOTFOUND=return] in nsswitch.conf mean?

    Type "man nsswitch.conf" for more info. There is too much detail to summarize here. Briefly, [NOTFOUND=return] means that the name service whose entry it follows should be considered authoritative (so that if it's up and it says such a name doesn't exist, believe it and return instead of continuing to hunt for an answer).

    4.4) Can I run a nis/yp server under Solaris 2.x?

    Yes, you need the Solaris network transition kit available from Sun. A number of those have been made available over time:

    1) NSkit 1.0. A version of SunOS 4.x NIS executables made to work on Solaris 2.x. Fully included in patch 101363-08.
    2) NSkit 1.1. Native, available from OPcom, but never left beta stage. Didn't do DNS lookups well (the entire server hangs until a DNS request is answered).
    3) NSkit 1.2. Native. Freely available from the Solaris 2.x migration initiative home page. Supports multi-homed hosts, async DNS lookups and shadow password maps. Also shipped with the 2.5 server kit.

    NSkit 1.2 is available for SPARC and x86.

    4.5) Can I run NIS+ under Solaris 1 (SunOS 4.1.x)

    Sort of, with the NIS+ server implementation for Solaris 1.x that comes on the Solaris 2.x CD. This is a server side only implementation and requires NIS+ to run in YP compatibility mode.

    4.6) With NIS+ how do I find out which machine a client is bound to?

    Nis+ clients do not hard bind to nis+ servers in the same way that nis clients bind to nis servers. The clients have a list of nis+ servers within the cold-start file. When they need to do a lookup they do a type of broadcast called a "manycast" and talk to the first server that responds. This way they can be sure to use the lightest loaded server for the request.

    4.7) Ypcat doesn't work on the netgroup table on a NIS+ server, why?

    Yes, that is a known problem. The only operations allowed from a NIS client side on the netgroup table are the ypmatches, but not ypcat (i.e. no support for yp_first(), yp_next() or yp_all() calls). The netgroup table is kind of unique in this. The reason for this is that the netgroup table format changed quite significantly in NIS+ and the NIS+ server would take a big performance hit in converting the netgroups table to YP (key-value) format.

    4.8) Why is rpc.nisd such a memory pig according to ps?

    The good news is that it's not memory OR swap space you're being shown by 'ps'. Instead it's showing you the process ADDRESS space which includes 256 MB of address space reserved for the NIS+ transaction log. Given the cost of moving things around in memory and the fact that we have 4 GB of address space to play with it, this is a good idea. You've just got to stop thinking small. THINK BIG. It's only 1/16th of the total process address space being used. And if you ever exceed the 256 MB size of the transaction log you're doing something VERY wrong.

    4.9) How do I tell my NIS+ server to service DNS requests from 4.x clients?

    Start rpc.nisd with the -B switch. This can be done editing the server's /etc/init.d/rpc file and change 'EMULYP="-Y"' to

    	    EMULYP="-Y -B"
    

    4.10) How can I have multiple addresses per interface?

    Solaris 2.x provides a feature in ifconfig that allows having more than one IP address per interfaces. (Undocumented but existing prior to 2.5, documented in 2.5)

    Syntax:

    	ifconfig IF:N ip-address up
    

    where "IF" is an interface (e.g., le0) and N is a number between 1 and 255. Removing the pseudo interface and associated address is done with "ifconfig IF:N 0.0.0.0 down".

    As with physical interfaces, all you need to do is make the appropriate /etc/hostname.IF:X file.

    4.11) Solaris 2.x supports filesystem sizes up to 1TB. Will this give interoperability problems with NFS?

    No, you can share those filesystems with SunOS 4.x and other machines just fine. The NFS protocol rarely transmits the size of the underlying filesystems. The only programs on SunOS 4 clients that may give trouble are du and df, but normal filesystem use is just fine.

    5. TROUBLE SHOOTING

    5.1) The Solaris 2.x application XX fails with a mysterious error condition.

    Try truss(1). truss -f -o file cmd args ... will put a trace of all system calls in "file". This often helps as a first step in diagnosing many failure modes, such as insufficient permissions on certain files etc.

    5.2) In Solaris 2.5 nm is slow or dumps core.

    A bug introduced in the 2.5 locale libraries make strcoll() return bogus values when confronted with empty strings. This bogus empty string comparison makes that strcoll no longer defines a strict order on strings, that confuses the hell out of qsort which promptly crashes.

    Workaround: set LC_COLLATE to "C"

    (Note that xview applications will usually reset LC_COLLATE to LC_ALL, so in cmdtool/shelltool windows, LC_COLLATE needs to be set again)

    5.3) Why can't I run Answerbook on a standalone machine?

    This is a bug in openwindows. Using xhost + or starting openwin -noauth works around this problem. This is only recommended for stand-alone machines with no dial-in users. [ S 2.3 ]

    5.4) Why can't I display Answerbook remotely?

    Displaying answerbook requires support for the DPS extension in the X server. The DPS extension is supported by most common Unix workstations, but not by most PC/X offerings and is often an extra cost item for X terminals.

    A number of people have reported success using ghostview as a replacement for the answerbook viewer, but this has the unfortunate side effect of not supporting the hypertext links in the documents.

    A better solution is to install a client side Display PostScript extension.

    Adobe has defined such a client side extension and call it DPS-NX. Bluestone sells a version. Check http://www.bluestone.com

    5.5) Why can't I run filemgr, I get ``mknod: permission denied''?

    This is a symptom of a bug in filemgr in Solaris 2.3. Either apply patch #101514 or run the following commands at system start-up:

    	     mkdir /tmp/.removable
    	     chmod a+rwxt /tmp/.removable
    

    5.6) Why do I get isinf undefined when linking with libdps on Solaris 2.3?

    That's a bug in libdps (fixed in 2.4). Sun compiles and links its software with its own compilers. The isinf() function is shipped with the SunPRO compilers, but not defined in any Solaris 2.3 library.

    A workaround exists, and consists of adding the following to your program:

    #include <ieeefp.h>
    

    int isinf(double x) { return !finite(x) && x==x; }

    5.7) I can't get PPP to work between Solaris 2.3 and other platforms.

    The PPP shipped with Solaris 2.3 doesn't interoperate with other PPP implementations. Patch #101425 fixes this.

    5.8) Using compat mode for passwd doesn't work in 2.3?

    You need patch #101448.

    5.9) Why do I get __builtin_va_alist or __builtin_va_arg_incr undefined?

    You're using gcc without properly installing the gcc fixed include files. Or you ran fixincludes after installing gcc w/o moving the gcc supplied varargs.h and stdarg.h files out of the way and moving them back again later. This often happens when people install gcc from a binary distribution. If there's a tmp directory in gcc's include directory, fixincludes didn't complete. You should have run "just-fixinc" instead.

    Another possible cause is using ``gcc -I/usr/include.''

    5.10) My machine hangs during the boot process. It seems related to ps.

    When the system boots, the first invocation of ps will try to recreate /tmp/ps_data. To this end ps scans the /dev tree. Under some circumstances, a loop exists in /dev and ps will run forever. Most of the time this loop is caused by the symbolic link /dev/bd.off. While this link usually points to /dev/term/b, it sometimes get truncated and points to /dev instead.

    Fix: rm -f /dev/bd.off; ln -s /dev/term/b /dev/bd.off
    

    Use truss(1) to determine whether this is real the cause of your problem.

    5.11) Syslogd doesn't seem to log anything.

    Make sure you have /usr/ccs/bin/m4 installed. It's in package SUNWbtool (m4 is included in SUNWcsu in 2.4 and later)

    Other causes are bugs in Solaris 2.3 and various revisions of patches. E.g., syslogd is broken in all 101318 patches between level -42 and -50. It works again in 101318-54.

    For 2.4, you may need patch 102534-xx and/or 102697-xx.

    5.12) I get ``Invalid client credential'' when mounting filesystem on Solaris client from non-Sun fileserver.

    Some vendors still ship a version of RPC/NFS that allows at most 8 groups in the client credentials. Root on Solaris is by default in 10 groups. As a result, the Solaris 2.x mount command will send AUTH_UNIX credentials that are too big to cope with for the remote mount daemon resulting in the ``Invalid client credential'' error.

    Workaround: put root and all your users in 8 or less groups. NOTE: You must logout and login again for changes in the number of groups to take effect. (or exit root's shell and re-su)

    5.13) After upgrade to 2.4, ls on NFS mounted directories hangs.

    Starting with Solaris 2.4, a kernel workaround to limit NFS readdir requests to 1024 bytes was disabled by default. This breaks interoperability with buggy old NFS implementations (such as SunOS 3.2, Ultrix and NeXT)

    There are two workarounds. The first one works and is:

    mount all filesystems from such servers with rsize=1024.

    The second one, which requires a patch for bugid #1193696 (101945-29 or later for SPARC, 101946-24 or later for x86)

    Edit /etc/system and add:

    	set nfs:nfs_shrinkreaddir = 1
    

    and reboot.

    5.14) After installing patch 101945-xx, I have NFS problems (ksh looping)

    Patch 101945-17 introduced an bug in the NFS client code that makes that programs using NFS locking will sometimes go in an interruptible read. (I.e., you can kill the program that hangs)

    Truss will show the program sleeping in read(2) while top will show it eating CPU. The ksh seems to have this quite a lot. There's also a lot of network traffic.

    Fix: install a patch for bug-id #1198278 on your NFS clients. (101945-29 or later for SPARC, 101946-24 or later for x86)

    Workaround: mount NFS filesystems with "noac", but this costs performance.

    5.15) I messed up /etc/system, now I can't boot.

    Boot with -as. The kernel will ask you all sorts of questions, including the name of the system file. Use the previous /etc/system file or specify /dev/null.

    5.16) The /etc/path_to_inst file is corrupted, I can't boot.

    Boot with -a and it will ask you to rebuild the path_to_inst file. It is possible that you still can't boot after that: if you've added/removed controllers/disks, the numbering of the controllers may have changed. You may need to find the new name of /usr and then edit /etc/vfstab to change all the disk names.

    5.17) TCP/IP connections time out too soon, especially on slow links.

    The tcp/ip abort interval in Solaris 2.x is too short, the default value is 2 minutes. The result is that when an ACK isn't received in 2 minutes, the connection is closed. This is most often seen by sendmail, which will log

    sendmail: SYSERR: collect: read timeout on connection from ...
    

    You can fix this by running following command which increases the timeout to 8 minutes (unit is millisec), which is the Solaris 2.4 (and patched 2.3 default)

    /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_ip_abort_interval 480000
    

    This command should be placed in a script rc2.d script. (See 3.16)

    (See 5.19 for another possible cause)

    5.18) Sendmail connection to non-Unix hosts don't work.

    With the introduction of sendmail V8 for Solaris 2.x in patch form and in Solaris 2.5, a bug in sendmail.cf has suddenly started to play up. The end-of-line character is not defined for the ethernet mailer, causing sendmail to send bare newlines in violation of the SMTP protocol which requires CR-NL.To fix, find the following line in sendmail.cf:

    Mether, P=[TCP], F=msDFMuCX, S=11, R=21, A=TCP $h
    

    and change it to:

    Mether, P=[TCP], F=msDFMuCX, S=11, R=21, A=TCP $h, E=\r\n
    

    To be on the safe side, check all lines starting with "M" that contain P=[TCP] or P=[IPC]. They all should use "E=\r\n".

    This bug is also fixed in the latest Solaris 2.x sendmail patches.

    5.19) Solaris 2.x can't set up any TCP/IP connections to certain hosts.

    Solaris 2.x sets the don't fragment bit on all packets it send as part of MTU path discovery. The Solaris 2.x implementation is RFC compliant, but the MTU path discovery protocol will fail when there are broken routers in the path. Typical symptom is not being able to connect from a Solaris 2.x hosts but having no trouble from other hosts or being able to start a TCP/IP connection but not move any significant amount of data.

    /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip_path_mtu_discovery 0
    

    (See also 5.17)

    5.20) I read 5.19, but I still have connectivity problems.

    Solaris 2.x will still send large packets over such links but without the don't fragment bit set. On a number of occasions, I've come across links that don't properly handle such packets. They're not fragmented, they're silently dropped instead.

    So if the fix in 5.19 doesn't work you can resort to the following drastic measure which negatively impacts network performance:

    /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_mss_max 536
    

    536 is the standard packet size that is guaranteed to work by virtue of the fact that most system will communicate outside the local net with packets that big. If the connection then starts to work, it's time to find the largest value that works.

    It's also worth mentioning that the "ip_path_mtu_discovery" needs to be applied at both sides of a connection to fully work, applied at one side it will only affect outgoing large packets. (I.e., downloads from the site will succeed but uploads from a other Solaris 2.x machine w/o the workaround applied may still fail). The "tcp_mss_max" workaround need only be applied at one side.

    If you need the "tcp_mss_max" workaround for some sites, there is a problem on the link between you and those sites. Get it fixed. Traceroute will tell you where the problem lies. Try traceroute host size, for varying sizes. If traceroute without a size parameter works, but traceroute with a size parameter of 1460 fails at some hop, the connection between that hop and the next is broken.

    5.21) When reading mail on non-Solaris clients of a Solaris mail server, or with non-Solaris mail readers, some messages get split into multiple messages.

    Solaris 2.x uses the "Content-Length:" header to tell the MUAs where messages should be split. Unfortunately, no-one else understands this convention. Instead, the old convention, ``split on "From " lines'' is used most of the time. Those mail readers expect extra lines with "From" to be escaped with ">".

    Workaround: add "E" to the mailerflags of the local mailer. Edit /etc/mail/sendmail.cf on your Solaris machines, add E to F= on the line that reads:

    Mlocal,       P=/bin/mail, F=flsSDFMmnP, S=10, R=20, A=mail -d $u
    

    so that it becomes:

    Mlocal,       P=/bin/mail, F=EflsSDFMmnP, S=10, R=20, A=mail -d $u
    

    5.22) Mailx/Mail often send reply to wrong user or show wrong sender.

    Mailx/Mail use UUCP from line to determine sender, it should use the From: header only. To achieve this you can use the undocumented "from" mail variable in your .mailrc: "set from".

    To make this the default behavior, add "set from" to /etc/mail/mailx.rc.

    5.23) One of my users can't login (one some machines).

    In the shadow table/file/map there is a field that indicates how long an account may be inactive before it is expired. On login, the entry in /var/adm/lastlog, the inactive expire time and the current date are compared. If the system determines that the user is expired, he will get "Login incorrect", indiscernible from a normal incorrect login. The fix is changing the user's shadow entry.

    5.24) My clients with remote /var (/var/adm) partitions won't boot.

    Remote, but unshared filesystems, such as /, /var, /var/adm, etc should be mounted with the llock option. Solaris 2.x does this automatically for remote /, but not for remote /var or /var/adm. If you don't specify llock, the system will hang when it tries to do stuff to the *[wu]tmp files, early in the boot process. And lpsched may fail if it can't lock /var/spool/lp/SCHEDLOCK.

    Workaround: Add the (undocumented) llock option to the mount options for /var and/or /var/adm. (It should be fixed in /etc/rcS.d/S70buildmnttab.sh)

    5.25) Vacation doesn't work reliably in a mixed Solaris/SunOS environment.

    Vacation was moved from /usr/ucb (in SunOS 4.x) to /usr/bin. Unfortunately, the full pathname must be specified in your .forward.

    Workaround: add a link to /usr/ucb/vacation in /usr/bin on SunOS 4 machines, and add a link to /usr/bin/vacation in /usr/ucb on SunOS 5 machines.

    5.26) I have a lot of <defunct> processes. How do I get rid of them?

    In general, defunct processes are caused by a parent process not reaping its children. Find out which process is the parent process of all those zombies (ps -e). It's that process that has a bug.

    In Solaris 2.3 (and presumably earlier) there is a bug in the pseudo tty modules that makes them hang in close. This causes processes to hang forever while exiting.

    Fix: Apply patch 101415-02 (for 2.3).

    In all Solaris 2 releases prior to 2.5 (also fixed in the latest 2.4 kernel jumbo patch), init (process 1) calls sync() every five minutes which can hang init for some considerable time. This can cause a lot of zombies accumulating with process 1 as parent, but occurs only in rare circumstances.

    5.27) I get /dev/ptmx: No such device when logging in.

    You need to increase the number of pseudo ttys.

    If you also have a lot of <defunct> processes, you may be hit by a bug in the OS. (See 5.26)

    5.28) ld bails out with msync errors.

    You probably use a Cray as fileserver. It doesn't support all NFS operations ld wants to perform. Install the following patch: 101409-04: SunOS 5.3: Jumbo linker patch

    [ Solaris 2.3 ]

    5.29) su responds with "Sorry" and doesn't prompt for a password.

    Su won't run under a shell compiled under SunOS 4.1.x. Recompile your shell (tcsh/bash) under Solaris 2.x.

    5.30) Why can't I install 2.4 from a non-Sun CD while I could do so with 2.3?

    Several changes were made to the "sd" driver between 2.3 and 2.4. In particular, the code that resets the drive to the 512 block size is no longer called in the case of a data overrun. Accordingly, it is not currently possible to install 2.4 from a local non- Sun CDROM drive. Your best bet for the short term may be to either borrow a SunCD (locally or maybe from your Sun Rep) or to mount the CD remotely on a machine that is already up and running and can handle your non-Sun CD-ROM, and perform a network installation.

    This is not a problem for non-SPARC versions of Solaris 2.x

    CDROMs that have been modified to use a 512 byte blocksize by default will work fine.

    5.31) ifconfig can't find my network interface

    Only network devices configured with an address at boot are visible to ifconfig (i.e., if /etc/hostname.IFN exists). To make a interface visible to ifconfig do:

    	ifconfig ifN plumb
    

    5.32) I have an application that compiled fine, but when I run it I get: fatal: libfoo.so.2: can't open file: errno=2

    You need to add -R<wherethelibraryis> to the link command line. E.g.,:

    	cc -L/usr/dt/lib -L/usr/openwin/lib \
    		-R/usr/dt/lib -R/usr/openwin/lib \
    		xprog.c -lXm -lXt -lX11
    

    5.33) Motif programs dump core almost immediately.

    You must specify the motif library on the command line before other X libraries.

    WRONG:

    	cc .... -lXt -lXm
    
    RIGHT:
    	cc .... -lXm -lXt
    

    5.34) cc complains that "language optional software package not installed"

    There is no C compiler included in Solaris 2.x. The /usr/ucb/cc script you are executing is a wrapper for the SunSoft C compiler which calls the native C compiler with the /usr/ucb includes and libraries. You need to get yourself a C compiler. Alternatively, you may have forgotten to put the proper link from /usr/ccs/bin/ucbcc to /opt/SUNWspro/SCxxxx/cc in place. See also 6.1.

    5.35) thr_create and other thread functions always return -1

    If you use SunPRO C 3.0 or later, you need to specify the commandline option ``-mt'' when compiling and linking. If you and earlier version of SunPRO C or when using gcc, you'll need to specify -D_REENTRANT on compile command lines and -lthread on the link command line. -lthread should precede -lc.

    5.36) Solaris 2.4 is getting slower over time/seems to have a kernel memory leak.

    There are two possible causes for this kernel memory leak.

    There's a bug in the volume management device driver that when unloaded leaks memory: fix with patch 101907-05 (sparc) or 101908-07 (x86). This bug especially affects systems not running vold, as it is triggered when the kernel decides to unload unused device drivers.

    The NFS client cache will cache to much. A simple workaround is to add ``set nrnode = 1000'' to /etc/system and reboot. You may want to make this larger or smaller depending on how much memory you have. A good rule of thumb is about 20-30 rnodes per MB of memory.

    Another possible candidate is an overflow in /tmp or other swap based (tmpfs) filesystems. Check with df/du.

    5.37) Why do I get ``Unable to install/attach driver 'xxx''' messages?

    The kernel complains that it can't load device drivers for devices you don't have. They're harmless, ignore them.

    5.38) I can't run nfs: netdir_getbyname failure, /dev/udp: bind problem

    For some reason the nfs service has disappeared from your /etc/services file, nis map or NIS+ table. You need to have an entry like:

    nfsd            2049/udp        nfs             # NFS server daemon (clts)
    nfsd            2049/tcp        nfs             # NFS server daemon (cots)
    

    If you use NIS+, you must make sure that the NIS+ entry is readable for the machine executing nfsd.

    If you used your SunOS 4.x services file, that would explain it: SunOS 4.x doesn't have an entry for nfsd in /etc/services, Solaris 2.x requires one.

    This will usually not happen until you upgrade to Solaris 2.4 or upgrade to 2.5. Solaris 2.3 and earlier would always consult /etc/services, regardless of what nsswitch.conf said. /etc/services does contain the right NFS entries. Solaris 2.4 and earlier don't have an entry for NFS over tcp.

    5.39) Why do I get ``named[]: rt_malloc: memdebug overflow'' errors?

    That's caused by a bug in the Solaris 2.4 named. You need to install the appropriate one of the following patches: 102479-01: SunOS 5.4: memory leak/mismanagement in in.named 102480-01: SunOS 5.4_x86: memory leak/mismanagement in in.named

    5.40) Ld dumps core on Solaris/x86

    Solaris 2.4/x86 ld dumps core when passed the "-s" option. Workaround: Link without the -s option and use strip on the resulting executable.

    5.41) In Solaris 2.4 my TCP performance is extremely poor.

    Patch 101969-05 broke TCP/IP throughput. You need to backout this patch or obsolete it with the kernel jumbo patch (101945-27 or later). The latter is recommended.

    On Solaris 2.4 x86, later kernel jumbo patches (101946-29) triggered bugs in some of the ethernet cards. This manifests itself as extremely poor TCP throughput. On such systems, you need to install DU10 or later.

    5.42) Solaris 2.4 in.tftpd is terribly slow.

    In Solaris 2.4 a bug was introduced that makes tftpboot chroot, while it still needs to open a socket. The first request still gets a response, but all other requests meet with a 5 second delay.

    Workaround:

    	mkdir /tftpboot/dev
    	mknod /tftpboot/dev/udp c 11 41
    	chmod 755 /tftpboot/dev; chmod 666 /tftpboot/dev/udp
    

    This is fixed with patch 102773-01 (sparc) and 102774-01 (x86).

    5.43) I get "df: Could not find mount point ..."

    If the mount point starts with /cdrom, there's a bug in the way /etc/mnttab gets updated for HSFS CDroms in Solaris 2.4. Edit /etc/mnttab and remove the dev= entry for those mountpoints that give you trouble.

    If the mount point name starts with /net/HOSTNAME, where HOSTNAME is some other host, it's probably Sun bug 1207057. Try patch 102785-01 or later (SunOS 5.4) or 102783-01 or later (SunOS 5.3). But if HOSTNAME is the current host, it's probably Sun bug 1220440; unfortunately, this bug is still open as of Jan 2nd 1996.

    5.44) I changed root's shell, now I can't login.

    If root no longer has a valid shell, your only recourse is to boot single user from CD.

    You need to mount the root file system and fix /etc/passwd.

    5.45) When linking C++ programs, I get "_ex_keylock" undefined.

    You installed a patch for your C++ compiler (101910 (SPARC) or 102486 (x86)) but forgot to install the required companion patch for libC.so.5.

    Fix: install patch 101242-10 (SPARC) or 102859-01 (x86) or later.

    5.46) My NFS server hangs when I get filesystem full/over quota errors.

    Solaris 2.4 has a combination of problems that make running with quotas of or with near-full disks almost impossible. The problems include writing message to /dev/console, which requires switching of interrupts and make the machine appear dead, clients caching upto 2MB of failed writes and retrying them, hammering the server to death.

    Fix: kernel patch 101945-32 (sparc)/101946-29 (x86) or later. Needs to be applied on clients as well as servers.

    5.47) Openwindows fails with "Binding Unix Socket: Invalid argument"

    This usually only happens on diskless/dataless clients. You installed a new kernel jumbo patch on the server that exports /usr to the client and failed to read the note in the patch readme that says:

    NOTE:       If this patch is applied to a server, it should
                also be applied to dataless clients that also
                mount /usr from that server.  Failure to do so will
                generate this error message when openwin is started
                on the client:  "Binding Unix socket: Invalid argument".
    

    The fix is to apply the same kernel jumbo patch to the client.

    5.48) Why is Xsun such a memory pig, especially on the SX, S24 and FFB?

    Ps counts the mappings for the framebuffer as memory. Especially on the FFB where a number of different mappings of the device address space is used to optimize access this can cause large amounts of memory, but not physical memory, to be mapped and shown by ps.

    It's not unusual for the FFB+ (Creator3D) to show a 500MB process size for the X server.

    Solaris 2.3 FCS also has a number of Xsun memory leaks when using the SX. Get the SX patches or upgrade to 2.4.

    5.49) Solaris 2.5 and Solaris 2.4 patch 101945-34+ have poor TCP performance over slow links.

    Solaris 2.5 and Solaris 2.4 kernel patch 101945-34 and later have a bug in their TCP retransmission algorithm that cause excessive retransmissions over slow links, Sun's bug ID is #1233827.

    A work around for this bug is running the following commands at system boot, e.g., by adding them to /etc/init.d/inetinit (values are in milliseconds):

    	/usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_rexmit_interval_min 3000
    	/usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_rexmit_interval_initial 3000
    

    Patches for this bug will be released shortly.

    5.50) After install x86 patch 101946-29, I have problems with sockets and TCP/IP throughput.

    These are two unrelated problems. To fix the socket problem, either copy "sockmod" from an earlier kernel patch such as 101946-12 or install patch 101946-35.

    The performance problem is a device driver problem that doesn't affect all ethernet cards. To fix this problem, you need to install DU10 or later.

    5.51) Du and ls show funny block counts on NFSv3 mounted filesystems.

    The first release of Solaris 2.5 NFS V3 has a bug in calculating the block allocations returned by stat. The server returns a value that is 16 times the right value and the client returns a value 16 times smaller to stat().

    The net effect is that unpatched Solaris 2.5 machines look like having no problems with each other.

    But on clients with the bug, files on servers returning the right value will have a block count 16 times too small. This breaks NFS v3 swap files in Solaris 2.5, as swap files will seem to have holes in them and swap will refuse to use them. If you see this problem, your server needs patching.

    On correct clients served by buggy servers, files will appear to have 16 times as many blocks allocated as they should have. This will generally do no more damage than overly large du(1) output.

    There are two ways to fix this: one is to upgrade to Solaris 2.5.1, the other is to install the 2.5 NFS patches 103226 (SPARC) or 103227 (x86), revision -04 or later.

    It is important that these patches are installed on clients and servers a like, especially on 2.5 clients using NFS swap files.

    5.52) When I halt/reboot my system I get "INIT: failed write of utmpx entry"

    When the system shuts down, init(1m) updates /var/adm/utmp* to reflect that fact.

    If you have a separate /var filesystem, this operation will happen after /var is unmounted and init complains:

    INIT: failed write of utmpx entry:"s6"
    INIT: failed write of utmpx entry:"rb"
    

    You can safely ignore these messages.

    6. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

    6.1) Where is the C compiler or where can I get one?

    Where have you been? :-) Sun has dropped their old K&R C compiler, supposedly to create a market for multiple compiler suppliers to provide better performance and features. Here are some of the contenders:

    1) SunPro C:

    SunPro, SMCC, and various distributors sell a new ANSI-standard C compiler on the unbundled (extra cost) SPARCcompiler/SPARCworks CD-ROM. There are some other nice tools there too, like a "make tool" and a visual diff (interactive diff).

    You have to license and pay per concurrent user.

    2) Apogee compilers

    Apogee sells C, C++, f77 and f90 compilers, mainly for SPARC. These compiler include the KAP preprocessors from Kuck and Associates.

    3) Cygnus GCC:

    Cygnus Support and the Free Software Foundation make the GNU C compiler for Solaris, a free software product. Source code and ready-to-run binaries can be installed from the CDware CD (Volume 4 or 5).

    Like all GNU software, there are no restrictions on who can use it, how many people can use it at a time, what machines it can be run on, or how many copies you can install, run, give away, or sell.

    Cygnus sells technical support for these tools, under annual support contracts.

    The Cygnus distribution includes: gcc (ansi C compiler), gdb (good debugger), byacc (yacc repl), flex (lex repl), gprof, makeinfo, texindex, info, patch, cc (a link to gcc)

    The Cygnus compiler on uunet is starting to show its age a bit. If you want to compile X11R5, you can get the latest version of GCC in source code, from the usual places (prep.ai.mit.edu or one of the many mirrored copies of it). Build and install that compiler using the Cygnus gcc binaries. Or get tech support from Cygnus; they produce a new version for their customers every three months, and will fix any bug you find.

    4) Gcc.

    Gcc is available from the GNU archives in source and binary form. Look in a directory called sparc-sun-solaris2 for binaries. You need gcc 2.3.3 or later. You should not use GNU as or GNU ld. Make sure you run just-fixinc if you use a binary distribution. Better is to get a binary version and use that to bootstrap gcc from source.

    GNU software is available from:

    prep.ai.mit.edu:/pub/gnu
    gatekeeper.dec.com:/pub/GNU
    ftp.uu.net:/systems/gnu
    wuarchive.wustl.edu:/mirrors/gnu
    nic.funet.fi:/pub/gnu

    When you install gcc, don't make the mistake of installing GNU binutils or GNU libc, they are not as capable as their counterparts you get with Solaris 2.x.

    5) Info on other compiler vendors will be added if you send us some.

    6.2) What about the linker, the assembler and make?

    Solaris ships with everything you need, except for the compiler. All this stuff lives in /usr/ccs/bin and /usr/ccs/lib. If you still can't find it, make sure you have the following packages installed on your system:

    	for tools (sccs, lex, yacc, make, nm, truss, ld, as):
    	    SUNWbtool, SUNWsprot, SUNWtoo
    	for libraries & headers:
    	    SUNWhea, SUNWarc, SUNWlibm, SUNWlibms
    	    SUNWdfbh, SUNWcg6h
    	for ucb compat:
    	    SUNWsra, SUNWsrh
    

    These packages are all on the Solaris 2.x CD.

    6.3) Where has ranlib gone?

    The functionality provided by ranlib in SunOS 4.1.x is now merged into ar. It is no longer necessary to run ranlib on archive libraries. Fix makefiles that require ranlib by replacing it with "/bin/true".

    A no-op ranlib is reintroduced in 2.5.

    6.4) What do I need to compile X11R5?

    There are several "patch kits" for X11R5 under Solaris 2.1. Most of them require gcc 2.3.3 or later and you must have run "fixincludes" when you install the gcc software.

    The recommended patchkit is R5.SunOS5.patch.tar.Z available from ftp.x.org:/R5contrib. It works with gcc (2.3.3 or later) and SunPRO C.

    X11R6 compiles out-of-the-box on Solaris 2.3.

    6.5) I can't compile X11R6 on Solaris 2.4

    There are several possible problems when compiling X11R6 on Solaris 2.4, all are solved after applying R6 fixes upto and including fix-12. These problems are:

    The compilation of xc/programs/Xserver/Xext/shm.c will fail with a redefinition of shmat().

    Compilation errors when using SC 2.0.x.

    See also 6.6

    6.6) X11R6 on Solaris 2.4 won't run. Xinit dies with "User Signal 1". Xterms won't die. Dired doesn't work in emacs-19.

    Some changes in libc.so and libthread.so break the way libthread is linked with libX11.so. The most noticeable symptoms are failing signal handling in xinit, xterms that don't die after the inferior shell process exits and emacs-19 hanging after starting dired.

    Apply all fixes upto fix-12 to the X11R6 sources. Remember to change OSMinorVersion to 4 in xc/config/cf/sun.cf as well and use "make Everything" or "make World", not just "make". Make sure you change the right OSMinorVersion in sun.cf, the first one is the x86 minor version, the second one is SPARC one. Change the one appropriate for your system or change both.

    The resulting R6 will not run on Solaris 2.3 or earlier. If you want to have the same set of binaries for Solaris 2.3 and 2.4, you need to disable threaded X altogether by changing "#define ThreadedX YES" to "#define ThreadedX NO" in sun.cf.

    Note that you must reinstall the X libraries with "make install" before things start working. There is no need to reinstall anything but libX11.so. Xterm, emacs etc., should start working after the change to libX11 is installed. Check your newly installed libX11 with dump -Lv libX11.so.6. If it still shows libthread as "NEEDED", the rebuild didn't work correctly. Double check your changes. (If you previously used the patch from the FAQ, make sure you remove it before applying fix-12.)

    For multi-threaded X to work it necessary to install patch 101925-02 to fix problems in header files [2.4]. You need to reinstall gcc or re-run just-fixinc after installing that patch.

    6.7) I get undefined symbols when compiling R6 in Solaris 2.2.

    Solaris 2.2 doesn't have the full thread support required by X11R6. Compile R6 without multi-thread support or upgrade to 2.3 or later.

    6.8) After compiling X11R6 with gcc 2.7.0, X programs won't find their libraries.

    Someone at GNU made a bad mistake by adding a the following misfeature to gcc 2.7.0: in the absence of -R options, specify a -R option for each -L option on the commandline.

    While this looks "neat" on the surface, this makes ld ignore LD_RUN_PATH, which is the mechanism used by R6 to set the RPATH. It also introduces a security hole, as it sets a relative RPATH for all X executables, including the set-uid ones.

    Workaround:

    remove the following bit from the gcc-lib/.../2.7.0/specs file:

    	%{!static:%{!R*:%{L*:-R %*}}}
    

    then rebuild X. This is fixed in gcc 2.7.1

    6.9) How can I run X11R6 on my SS4 w/ TCX?

    Although it is possible to switch the TCX to dumb cg3 mode and run X11R6 on that, Matt Landau of the X consortium said the following on the matter:

    "But why would you want an accelerated 24-bit framebuffer to behave like a dumb 8-bit framebuffer under Solaris 2?

    "OpenWindows versions 3.3 and 3.4 (bundled with Solaris 2.3 and Solaris 2.4 respectively) are perfectly reasonable R5-based implementations of X, with a perfectly good R5 server that also does DPS and takes advantage of the TCX. They have none of the brokenness associated with the old X11/NeWS server from OpenWindows versions 3.2 and before.

    "Of course, if you want R6 libraries and apps, you can build R6 and run R6 applications against the OpenWindows 3.4 server, and still get full benefit of the TCX. Works just fine."

    6.10) Can I run X11R6 on my SX, ZX, TCX or FFB?

    No. Run Sun's Xsun instead, it works fine.

    6.11) I can't get perl 4.036 to compile or run.

    Run Configure, and use the solaris_2_0 hints, don't use the solaris_2_1 hints and don't use the config.sh you may already have. First you must make sure Configure and make don't find /usr/ucb/cc. (It must use gcc or the native C compiler: /opt/SUNWspro/bin/cc)

    Some questions need a special answer.

    Are your system (especially dbm) libraries compiled with gcc? [y] y
    

    yes: gcc 2.3.3 or later uses the standard calling conventions, same as Sun's C.

    Any additional cc flags? [ -traditional -Dvolatile=__volatile__
    -I/usr/ucbinclude] -traditional -Dvolatile=__volatile__
    
    Remove /usr/ucbinclude.

    Any additional libraries? [-lsocket -lnsl -ldbm -lmalloc -lm
    -lucb] -lsocket -lnsl  -lm
    

    Don't include -ldbm, -lmalloc and -lucb.

    Perl 5 compiled out of the box.

    6.12) I can't get sockets to work with perl.

    Some of the socket constants have changed. E.g., SOCK_STREAM now has a value of 2, whereas SunOS 4.x uses a value of 1.

    6.13) I have problems compiling MH 6.8.3

    The MH config file for Solaris that comes with MH 6.8.3 should work OK, but there's some other problems: One of the Solaris 2.x headers conflicts with mhn.c and inc doesn't know how to separate messages based on the Content-Length header. A fix for both problems can be found in:

    <ftp://ftp.fwi.uva.nl/pub/solaris/mh-6.8.3-diff>

    6.14) I can't get XV 3.x to compile or run correctly.

    You need to get xv-3.x from ftp.cis.upenn.edu:/pub/xv. Don't use xv-3.01 from ftp.x.org. The latest version, xv-3.10, compiles fine w/o any of the ucb stuff.

    6.15) What happened to NIT? What new mechanisms exist for low-level network access?

    See man page DLPI(7). Try NFSWATCH 4.2 for sample code using DLPI. It is available by ftp from: harbor.ecn.purdue.edu:/pub/davy/nfswatch4.3.tar.gz and gatekeeper.dec.com:/pub/net/ip/nfs/nfswatch4.3.tar.gz

    Better yet, FTP the paper "How to Use DLPI in Solaris 2.x" by Neal Nuckolls of Sun Internet Engineering. Look in these FTP directories: opcom.sun.ca:/pub/drivers/dlpi

    ftp.ui.org:/pub/osi/{dlpi,npi,tpi}.ps [ It appears that this site no longer exists, where did it move to? ] [ someone has found these, ill put a reference in later ]

    6.16) Where are all the functions gone that used to be in libc?

    The C library has exploded. The manual page may give an indication where to find a specific function.

    Those libraries are essentially split over two directories:

    	    /usr/lib /usr/ccs/lib.
    

    Important libraries:

    	/usr/lib:
    	    libsocket       - socket functions
    	    libnsl          - network services library
    

    	/usr/ccs/lib:
    	    libgen          - regular expression functions
    	    libcurses       - the SysVR4 curses/terminfo library.
    

    See Intro(3) for more details.

    6.17) I'm still missing some functions: bcopy, bzero and friends.

    They are in /usr/ucblib/libucb.so. The b* functions are replaced with the ANSI-C equivalents. Look in the Solaris porting FAQ for more details.

    In Solaris 2.5, they're back in libc.so, together with many other commonly used BSD functions.

    6.18) Can I use the source compatibility package to postpone porting?

    Not really. The Source code compatibility package is compatible with BSD 4.2, not SunOS 4.1.x. The consensus is that the library is broken beyond usability. If you use libucb to pick up some functions you need, it is often best to specify it after all other libraries and after libc with:

    	    -lc -L/usr/ucblib -R/usr/ucblib -lucb
    

    or preferably:

    	    -lc /usr/ucblib/libucb.a
    

    6.19) Why doesn't readdir work? It chops the first two characters of all filenames.

    You're probably linking with libucb and didn't read question 6.18. (Readdir in libucb.so wants you to include sys/dir.h, but many SunOS 4.1.x programs included <dirent.h>, consequently, you're mixing native <dirent.h> struct dirent with libucb readdir(). The symptom of this mixup is that the first two characters of each filename are missing. Make sure you use the native compiler (default /opt/SUNWspro/bin/cc, which may not be in your PATH), and not /usr/ucb/cc.

    6.20) Why do I get undefined symbols when linking with curses/termcap?

    It is easy to mixup the BSD libcurses and the SVR4 libcurses. One lives in /usr/ucblib, the other in /usr/ccs/lib, when you've installed SUNWarc. Note that when you specify:

    	    -L/usr/ucblib -lucb -L/usr/ccs/lib -lcurses
    

    you will pick the ucb version of libcurses, not the SVR4 version. If you always put libucb last, as recommended in the previous question, you will have no such problem.

    6.21) Where are the Motif includes and libraries?

    Starting with Solaris 2.4, the package SUNWmfrun is included with the base OS. It is installed under the directory /usr/dt, where all the CDE stuff will appear (dt stands for desktop).

    There are no Motif imake templates nor is mwm shipped with the base OS yet.

    Remember that you must link with -R/usr/dt/lib.

    6.22) When I call semctl(), my program crashes. It works fine elsewhere.

    The fourth argument to semctl() is a "union semun" that you need to define yourself. That your programs works on other systems is sheer luck. The argument passing convention on SPARC make that your luck just ran out. Instead of passing the contents of small structs and unions in registers, a copy of the struct/union is made on the stack and a pointer to that struct is passed.

    In short, on SPARC, passing a union containing an integer and just an integer, both by value, is not the same thing. On other systems it sometimes is.

    Wrong, but it may work on other systems:

    semctl(sem_fd, 0, SETVAL, 1); 
    

    Right:

    union semun {
    	int val;
    	struct semid_ds *buf;
    	ushort *array;
    } arg;
    

    arg.val = 1;

    semctl(sem_fd, 0, SETVAL, arg);

    6.23) Traceroute to Solaris 2.x machines gives many timeouts.

    Solaris 2.4 and later (and Solaris 2.3 w/ high rev kernel jumbo patches) limit the number of ICMP error message to one per 500 milliseconds. To switch off this feature, use:

    	/usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip_icmp_err_interval 0
    

    6.24) I have problems linking my application statically.

    In Solaris 2.x static linking is not supported for any of the system libraries. All the functions that use /etc/nsswitch.conf (getXXXbyYYY, getpwXXX, etc) require the dynamic linker to load the code to load these functions. It is not possible to write configurable/extensible functions in such a way that dynamic linking is not required. E.g., you can add your own nsswitch.conf backend which would not be known to programs statically linked to only the standard backend code.

    Programs that link statically against any of the OS libraries may not run in the next release and are not ABI compliant.

    Programs that link statically don't get some dynamic performance enhancements found in the shared libraries: using hardware multiply/divide on systems that support it; using fast mem*() operations on UltraSPARC etc. And you won't pick up performance enhancements in next releases: e.g., Solaris 2.5 comes with a 4x faster fread/fwrite and the "Name Server Cache Daemon".

    If you don't care about ABI compliance, i.e., you won't ship you program as a product and don't care that you may need to recompile after an OS upgrade, here are some of your options:

    Link dynamically against all but libdl:

    	cc -Bstatic ....  -Bdynamic -ldl -Bstatic
    

    Link against dl* stubs (gethostbyXXX, getpwXXX etc won't work any longer):

    	char *dlopen() { return 0;}
    	int dlclose() { return 0;}
    	char *dlsym() { return 0;}
    	char *dlerror() { return "dynamic linking not loaded";}
    

    If you don't want any dependencies on /usr, link against the dynamic libs in /etc/lib:

    	cc -Bstatic ... -Bdynamic -R/etc/lib -Wl,-I/etc/lib/ld.so.1 -ldl
    		-Bstatic ....
    

    If you still get undefined symbols, check with ldd for all your libraries if they have any dynamic dependencies. E.g.,

    	% ldd /usr/lib/libsocket.so.1
    		libnsl.so.1 =>   /usr/lib/libnsl.so.1
    		libdl.so.1 =>    /usr/lib/libdl.so.1
    		libc.so.1 =>     /usr/lib/libc.so.1
    		libintl.so.1 =>  /usr/lib/libintl.so.1
    		libw.so.1 =>     /usr/lib/libw.so.1
    

    tells you that if you want to link libsocket statically, you need to link with -lnsl -ldl -lc -lintl and -lw as well.

    6.25) I get '"/usr/platform/SUNW,Ultra-1/lib/libc_psr.so.1": not in executable format: format not recognized' from gdb on my Ultra gdb needs to be updated to understand the "V8+" executable format.

    Either install gdb 4.16 or later, or update the gdb 4.15.1 distribution with the following patch to bfd/elf32-sparc.c and include/elf/common.h:

    	  *** gdb-4.15.1/bfd/elf32-sparc.c       Fri Nov  3 12:30:15 1995
    	  --- elf32-sparc.c        Thu Nov 23 14:44:37 1995
    	  ***************
    	  *** 1486,1491 ****
    	  --- 1486,1492 ----
    	    #define TARGET_BIG_NAME       "elf32-sparc"
    	    #define ELF_ARCH      bfd_arch_sparc
    	    #define ELF_MACHINE_CODE EM_SPARC
    	  + #define       ELF_MACHINE_ALT1 EM_SPARC32PLUS
    	    #define ELF_MAXPAGESIZE 0x10000
    	    #define elf_backend_create_dynamic_sections \
    	                                          _bfd_elf_create_dynamic_sections
    

    *** gdb-4.15.1/include/elf/common.h Fri Nov 3 20:20:25 1995 --- common.h Thu Nov 23 14:20:07 1995 *************** *** 83,88 **** --- 83,91 ---- #define EM_SPARC64 11 /* SPARC v9 (not official) 64-bit */

    #define EM_PARISC 15 /* HPPA */ + + #define EM_SPARC32PLUS 18 /* Sun SPARC 32+ */ + #define EM_PPC 20 /* PowerPC */

    /* If it is necessary to assign new unofficial EM_* values, please pick large

    7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    Most of this material is either written by me or sent to me directly. Some of it is cribbed shamelessly from USENET postings in several groups.

    Thanks to all people who contributed to this FAQ, you know who you are. The list is too long to be included in this FAQ.

    --- End of Solaris 2.x FAQ -- Maintained by Casper Dik <Casper.Dik@Holland.Sun.COM> ---